KnE Social Sciences | International Conference on Economics, Business and Economic Education 2018 (ICE-BEES 2018) | pages: 261–272

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1. Introduction

The principal is one of human resources that has very significant and strategic role to improve the quality of education in schools, the principal have to improve his performance. Performance is an achievement or successful level achieved by someone or organization in carrying out the work during certain period [19]. The performance of the principal is the work done by the principals in carrying out his main duty, functions and responsibilities in managing the school he leads (National Education Department, 2008: 4). Result of the work is a reflection of the competence he has. Regulation of National Education Minister No. 13 in the year of 2007 on Principal Standards / Institution of Learning entrusts, that to carry out his role and function as manager, principal is prosecuted to have managerial competence consisting of 3 (three) components: (1) planning; (2) management, consisting of alteration management, human resources, and other resources; (3) evaluation and follow-up. These competencies ideally shall be equipped by the principals and actualized in routine activities, so thatit showshigh managerial performance. However the phenomenon that occurs in the real field, it indicates the managerial competence of the principal has not been optimal, so that the managerial performance of the principal is still in the low level.

Other fact indicates that the results of the principal's performance assessment through the Competent Test of the Principal (CTP) in thelatest on-line conducted by the Development Agent of Professional Education of BPSDMPK Ministry of Education and Culture in 2015 shows the value of national average is low, because it has not reached the standard of graduation minimum that settled 70 (from a scale of 0 - 100). The average value of the national on-line in Competent Test of the Principal (CPT) is 44.24 and the average value of CPT for the lowest elementary school is 42.60. Number of principals / institution of learninghave been tested are 208,000 people. The average value of National Competent Test of the Principal per dimension indicates the managerial dimension of 47.11 is still under the standard of graduation minimum (70). It means that the managerial competence of the principals in Indonesia is very low, whereas managerial competence is the principal's power to execute the school well (Dharma, 2009). The managerial competence in the low level depicts managerial performance of the principal is low, too. The phenomenon in several elementary schools in Semarang Regency shows that the low of managerial performance is influenced by the implementation of leadership style and organizational adaptability that has not be optimal.

In the educational organization, it is revealed that the principal who receive the tenacity model depicts the adaptation of great changes, the sturdy principal is capable to adapt the changes successfully, it is not only improve their school performance but also become an effective leaders. The principals with high organizational adaptability will show responsive and proactive attitude through the changes. Denison and Mirsha in Rusdianto (2009: 106), stated that the organization's adaptability is the ability of an organization to adapt to changes. Denison and Mirsha reveals that organizational adaptability is the capability of the organization to adjust ourselves to the changes and pressure externally and internally.

The results of Locander & Jaramillo (2006); Burpitt (2008); shows that the ability to adapt with the environment affect the company performance positively and significantly. To build the quality requires the ability / attitude to adapt with the changes [26]. To cope the changes the principals have to be sensitive through the external realities in a global environment [9]. It is not in the similar vein with these research, Muhtaram et al. (2009) indicate that organizational adaptability has no direct effect on organizational performance in university. The next research shows that adaptability can increase commitment of the organization members [10].

The commitment of the principal is very important because the process of mobilization that commitment has to be started at the highest level in the organization. Every leader in the organization is responsible for undergoing an important role in creating an atmosphere of work environment that encourages each person to show the high performance in line with the high organizational commitment. The definition of commitment refers to allegiance and loyalty. Mowday et al. (1979), defines that organizational commitment is the involvement of employees in their loyalty to the organization, willingness to instruct the business, goals and values in line with the organization and the desire to maintain the members in the organization. Armstrong (1955: 173) defines commitment as the relative strength of the identification and someone's involvement to the certain organization.

The result of the research by Folorunso et al. (2014) shows that the dimensions of organizational commitment simultaneously and independently affect performance of the employee. In a similar vein with that research Nasomboon (2014), finds that commitment of the leadership affects organizational performance and employee's engagement directly. The result of that researchis different with Yih, Wu Wann, & Sein Htaik (2011) indicates that the relationship between organizational commitment and performance is not to the significant level.

Given the gap between theory and field facts and research findings in the previous one, as well as existing research gaps related to performance issues and the factors that influence them in the description above of the background, the purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of improved managerial performance of the head schools through organizational adaptability and commitment.

Following up thediscrepancyamong the theories and the facts in the real field and results of the previous research, also the existing research gap relates to the performance issues and kind of factors that influence them in the background of the research above, the aim of this research is to analyze the influence of the improvement of principal's managerial performance through the adaptability and organizational commitment.

Base on that background, the research hypothesis is as follows:

  • The higher of the adaptability will increase organizational commitment

  • The higher of the adaptability will improve the principal's managerial performance

  • The higher organizational commitment will improve principal's managerial Performance

Conceptual framework in improvement of the principal's managerial performance in this study is visualized in the following figure:

Figure 1

Conceptual Framework for Increasing Principal's Managerial Performance.

fig-1.jpg

2. Method

The population as the object in this research was the principals at Elementary School level in Semarang Regency totally 510 people. The samples in this research were determined based on Cluster Sampling technique (Area Sampling). The researcher took the samples of 25% x 510 = 127 people. Suharsimi (2008: 134), Arikunto (2006: 112) states that "if the subject is less than a hundred, it is better to take all of them so that his research is population research, but if the subject is large, it can be taken between 10 - 15%, or 15 - 25% or more of the whole population". The variables that will be analyzed in this research are: (1) Adaptability is respondent's self-assessment covering the condition that can show responsive attitude of the principals in adjusting to internal and external factors of organization include dimension: Creating Change, Costumer Focus, and Organizational Learning. (2) Organizational Commitment isrespondent's self-assessment through the behavior of their alignments in organization and responsibility in undergoing their duties showed in their daily work, including: identification, loyalty, and involvement. (3) Principal's Managerial Performance is the respondent's self-assessment of th condition that indicate the principal's ability to perform the main duty as manager, including dimensions of: planning, management, evaluation and follow-up. Each question item is measured using seven measurement scales, of which 1 shows "very rarely done" and 7 indicates "always done".

To answer the problems of the research, and test the hypothesis was done by analyzing and testing the empirical model. The trial of the hypothesis model usedpath analysis with the software called SPSS 21.

Framework of relationship between causality of each variable proposed in this research:

Figure 2

Relationships between Causality of each Variable.

fig-2.jpg

The classification:

  • Free Variable: Adaptability (X1)

  • Intervening Variables: Organizational Commitment (X2)

  • Dependent Variables: Principal's Managerial Performance (Y)

3. Results and Discussion

Assumption test in parametric analysis include: normality test, linearity test, and multicolonierity test using application program that is SPSS 21 shown in the following table.

Table 1

Result of Assumption Test in Adaptability Variable, Organizational Commitment, and Principal's Managerial Performance.


Normality Test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov Lineriarity Test Multikolonierity Test
X1 X2 Y X1 - Y X2 - Y X1 X2
Tolerance VIF Tolerance VIF
, 083 0,581 0,156 0,86 0,19 0,543 1,842 0,543 1,842
Dependent Variable Y
Source: Processed Data, 2018

Table 1. Normality testing by using Kolmogorov – Sminov criteria show a significant value (p value) all variables above > 0,05, so all the data variables are normally distributed. The linearity test in this study indicates that all variables acquired significance value greater than 0,05, it means there is a linear connection according to the significant between variables. The tolerance value of all variables shows greater than 0,10 and VIF value less than 10.00. It means no multikolonieritas.

The results of analyzing dependent variables regression of the organizational commitment shown in Table 2 below.

Table 2

Analysis Regression of Dependent Variable of the Organizational Commitment (X2).


Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig R Square Adjusted R Square
B Std Errors
1 (Constant) 37,917 4,942 7,672 ,000 ,457 ,453
X1 ,844 ,082 ,676 10,258 ,000
Dependent Variable: X2
Source: Processed Data, 2018

The first hypothesis that proposed in this study is that the higher adaptability will increase the organizational commitment. Base on the empirical analysis in Table 2. the magnitude of coefficients regression influence of adaptability (XI) to organizational commitment (X2) equal to 0,676 or equal to (0,676) (0,676) = 0,4569 or 45,69 % and these coefficients marked positive. This indicates if the adaptability increases or better, so the organizational commitment will increase as well. The model of connection adaptability with organizational commitment is significant, it is indicated by the value of t test = 10,258 bigger than t table alpha 0,05 (df = 127) equal to 1,656. Thus the first hypothesis is supported, means the organization's commitment is influenced by the adaptability. With the existence of the increased of adaptability will further enhance the organization's commitment. It indicates that to increase the organizational commitment built by the organizational adaptability.

The results of this study are supported by research Karadel et. al (2008) shows that the ability of adaptation can increase the member commitment in the organization. Similarly with the result of research conducted by Wulandary et al. (2017) prove that the organization of cultural adaptability affects the employee commitment in PT Krakatau Steel Tbk.

The results of analysis regression of dependent variable of the principal managerial performance are shown in Table 3. below.

Table 3

Analysis Regression of Dependent Variable of the Principal Managerial Performance (Y).


Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig R Square Adjusted R Square
B Std Errors
1 (Constant) 36,090 8,029 4,495 ,000 ,411 ,401
X1 ,419 ,150 ,262 2,801 ,004
X2 ,556 ,120 ,434 4,639 ,000
Dependent Variable: Y
Source: Processed Data, 2018

The second hypothesis that proposed in this study is the higher adaptability of the organization will improve the principal managerial performance. Based on the empirical analysis in Table 3.the magnitude of the influence coefficient regression of adaptability (X1) toward the principal managerial performance (Y) is 0,262 or (0,262) (0,262) = 0,0686 or 6,86% and this coefficient marked positive. This research indicates if the adaptability increase or better, so the principal managerial performance will increase as well. The model of adaptability relation with the principal managerial performance is significant, it is indicated by the value of t test = 2,801 greater than t alpha table 0,05 (df = 127) is 1,656. Thus the second hypothesis is supported, means the principal managerial performance influenced by organizational adaptability. With the existence of the increased of organizational adaptability will further enhance the principal managerial performance. It indicates that to improve the principal managerial performance is built by the organizational adaptability.

The findings of this research support the theory that presented by Khotimah (2007), and Widoyoko, (2012:213) states that the employee/s adaptability has an effect on organizational performance. This is reinforced by the opinion of Walker & Boyne (2006), that the success of an organization depends on the internal adapting to the environment. Aragon (2007) states that adaptability has a positive and significant effect toward the organizational performance.

The result of this study is supported by Burpitt (2008), shows that ability of adapting to the environment positively and significantly affect the company performance. The study conducted by Winata et al.(2015) shows that the ability of adapting to the environment positively and significantly affects the performance, directly or indirectly. Similarly with the research conducted by Widodo (2012), shows that the increase in performance influenced by the ability of adaptation. To face the change of principal should be sensitive to the external reality in a global environment [9].

The third hypothesis proposed in this study is the higher the organization's commitment will improve the principal managerial performance. Based on the empirical analysis in Table 3.the magnitude of the influence regression coefficient of the adaptability (X2) toward the principal managerial performance (Y) is or equal to (0,434) (0,434) = 0,1883 or 18,83 % and this coefficient marked positive. It indicates if the organizational commitment increase or better, then the principal managerial performance will increase as well. The model of relation organization's commitment to the principal managerial performance is significant, it is indicated by the value of t test = 4,639 is bigger than alpha t table 0,05 (df = 127) equal to 1,656. Thus the second hypothesis is supported, means the principal managerial performance is influenced by the organizational adaptability. With the increase in organizational commitment will further improve the principal managerial performance. This indicates that to improve the principal managerial performance built by the organizational commitment.

The results in this study support the Porter et. al theory in Armstrong (2006:271), reveals that the higher organizational commitment of the employee, then the greater effort he did in carrying out the job or the higher his performance. The result of the research conducted by Folorunso et al. (2014) shows that the dimension of organizational commitment together and independently affect the employee performance. Rozi et al. (2016:); Nurnaningsih, & Wahyono (2017) managed to reveal that commitment has a positive and significant impact toward the employee performance.

The greatest contribution of the adaptability influence and organizational commitment together toward the principal managerial performance is 0,411 or 41,1 % and the rest is 58,9 % is determined by other factor outside the model.

The model analysis of the intervening variable or by mediation of organizational commitment is shown in the following picture.

Figure 3

The Model Analysis of the Intervening Variable.

fig-3.jpg

The direct and indirect adaptability effect toward the principal managerial performance is as follows:

Direct Influence = (0,262) (0,262) = 0,0686 or 6,86 %

Indirect Influence = (0,676) (0,434) = 0,2960 or 29,6%

Total Influence = 0,3646 or 36,46%

The magnitude of the influence of the total adaptability to the principal managerial performance through the variable of organizational commitment shows the greater value than the direct influence, so the variable of organizational commitment is an intervening variable. It means, based on the research of the principal of an elementary school in Semarang regency proved that the higher adaptability through the improvement of organizational commitment will increase the principal managerial performance.

4. Conclusion and Suggestion

Based on the findings in this study, the managerial implication on educational units are as follows, first, the efforts to increase the organizational commitment can be achieved by improving the ability of principal adaptability toward the changes in both internal and external. Second, the efforts to increase the principal managerial performance can be achieved by improving the ability of the principal adaptability to changes in both internal and external. Third, the efforts to increase the principal managerial performance can be achieved by improving organizational commitment. Commitment is a relative strength of individual identification, involvement and loyalty to the particular organization.

The suggestion of this research is, for the principal as a manager of education unit and an agent of change need to improve the ability of organizational adaptability by being responsive and proactive to change that will come externally or internally. The principal is responsible for creating an atmosphere of work environment that encourages each person to have high performance and high organizational commitment. For the Department of Education, Culture, Youth and Sports in Semarang regency which is authorized to develop the principal needs to be planned and periodically to improve the principal managerial performance through education and training, as well as optimizing the role of supervisor in developing and accompanying the principal of the target school. For the further researcher, the need to examine more deeply about the principal managerial competence related to the rapid changes in this era of globalization so that requires a higher commitment from all citizens of the school.

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