Education is the key to progress, development, and change of nation to create the quality of human resources either through formal or non formal education. Formal education is driven by the guidance of teachers, and other educators, while the non formal education took place in the environment. The success of formal education is determined from the interaction of teachears with students, while the success of the non formal education stems from the interactions of the environment especially the family environment.
In addition, in the process of learning, motivation is an important because someone who has no motivation in learning, they will not be probably doing learning activities (Djamarah, 2016). Kompri (2015) stated that "the elements that affect the motivation of learning is student's environmental conditions". Environment students is a natural (physical) and place of residence. Other factors that affect the motivation of student learning is the competence of teachers and family environment. Because the competence of the teacher has a very important role in achieving the learning objectives, the teacher can determine the quantity and quality of teaching . Meanwhile, the family environment is also greatly affect student learning motivation, because the family environment is the main thing in the education environment that exert influence on students.
Based on the results of observation and interviews conducted in 10 students in Vocational High School (VHS) around Pekalongan City about the learning motivation of students, it is known that students are still doing the task with a sense of lazy, procrastinating the task, imitating the task of others, lack of initiative in seeking the source of learning and exercises, and there is still a speak for themselves when the teacher explained to the class.
Based on the results of observations, there are eight teachers for the program of office administration and they already have a competence. The teacher competency demonstrate that teachers can be directing, motivating, and guiding students, so students are able to actively and ask about the material being studied. It is similar with research of Muhsin (2008), “The success of student during the following learning activities is very dependent on the activity of learning for students, but it is not the role of a teacher, in guiding, pushing, and directing the students to have motivation in learning”.
Based on observations related to the physical environment of the class, it indicates that the available equipment in the classroom includes cleanliness, whiteboard and equipment tools, desk chairs, no fan, and sufficient lighting. Moreover, the classroom environment where rob often occur have impact in the learning process, it is less comfortable for students. The layout of desk chair is still monotonous, then color of the paint is less bright, it will give less bright in the class and decrease of motivation learning for students. Whereas, the family environment of students comes from a diverse background. Below is a table about the condition of family environment based on the result of preliminary observations.
|No||Type of Job||Amount|
|Source: Data processed, 2018|
From table 1, it can be seen that the various of parents will cause different economic income revenue, so it is also influencing the fulfillment of the needs of the students. The good economic situation will affect education and learning motivation of students, because students learning facilities can be met and students more excitement in learning.
Investigation results of interviews about the economic condition of parents showed that the parents are more worried about their economic situation than the learning achievement of their son. It will influence for students development. The students will has the intention of the school just to simply execute the responsibility without seeing the results they get. In addition, the students get less attention, and they are not close to their parents. However the environment condition of the family is not perceived by all students, some students also have a harmonious family environment conditions. It is shown by the attention of parents like to remind students to learn and teach the good habitation.
Description of the problem shows that there is the phenomenon of the gap where the implementation of teaching and learning activities has not been optimal, because some students who follow learning well are not necessarily getting a satisfactory learning result. Therefore, the teacher must be able to understand the background of their students, so that teachers can provide motivation and encouragement to learn them. Based on the gap between expectations and reality that is happening in the field, the author is interested in conducting research on "The Effect of Teacher's Competency, Physical Environment of Classroom and Family Environment towards Students' Learning Motivation".
This type of research used quantitative methods and descriptive correlation design research. Sampling techniques uses saturated samples. The population examined as much as 122 from 11th grade at Department of offices Administration in VHS arround Pekalongan City. The variables examined were the competence of teachers (X ) includes the competence of pendagogic, the competence of personality, professional competence, and social competence. Physical environment in the class variable (X ) includes viewability, easily achieve, flexibility, Comfort, and Beauty. Family environment variables (X ) includes How parents educate, Relationships between family members, home atmosphere, the circumstances of the family economy, understanding the child's parents, cultural background. Whereas, the motivation of learning (Y) includes Assiduously the face the task, Diligently for difficulties, Showing interest, enjoy working independently, bored on a routine task, Defending his opinion, it is not easy to pull off things that are believed to be, nice to find and Troubleshoot problems.
The techniques of data collection are questionnaires, documentation, and interviews. The type of questionnaire that is used, namely an enclosed questionnaire with four alternative answer strongly agree (SS), disagree (S), undecided (KS), less agree and disagree (TS). Analysis of test instrument uses test of validity and reliability. Technique of data analysis uses inferential statistics and descriptive percentages.
3. Result and Discussion
Regarding to the result of multiple linear regression analysis, it is obtained an equation as follow:
MTV: Motivasi Belajar (Learning Motivation)
KG: Kompetensi Guru (Teachers' Competence)
LFK: Lingkungan Fisik Kelas (Class Physical Environment)
LK: Lingkungan Keluarga (Family Environment)
Based on mentioned regression equation, it can be discovered that the constants is 19,948 which has the meaning that, if variables of Teachers' Competence, Class Physical Environment and Family Environment are constant, so the value of Student Learning Motivation is 19,948. Additionally, regression coefficient value of Teacher's Competence variable is 0,521. That it to say, if Teachers' Competence variable is increasing approximately one point, by assuming variables of Class Physical Environment and Family Environment are stagnant, so that the learning motivation will rise about 0,521. Regression coefficient value of Class Physical Environment is 0,253. This means, if Class Physical Environment variable is increasing approximately one point, by assuming variables of Teachers' Competence and Family Environment are stagnant, so that the Class Physical Environment will escalate about 0,253.
Regression coefficient value of Family Environment is 0,184. This means, if Family Environment variable is increasing approximately one point, by assuming variables of Teachers' Competence and Class Physical Environment are stagnant, so that the Class Physical Environment will increase about 0,184.
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Stand. Coefficients||T||Sig.|
|Source: Processed data, 2018|
Based on simultaneous test result (F test), it is given that F distribution is 20,022 within the significant value of 0,000. Since the statistic significance is smaller that 0,05, as the consequence, H is rejected. It shows that H which refers to Teachers' Competence, Class Physical Environment and Family Environment which simultaneously affect to student learning motivation is accepted.
|Model||Sum of Squares||Df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|Source: Processed data, 2018|
T-Test is purposed to identify the effect of Teachers' Competence, Class Physical Environment and Family Environment toward student learning motivation. An partial assesment is calculated using computer-based program of SPSS 21.0 for windows by significance level of 5%. The result of patial test (t test) for teacher's Competence is depicted t-value of 4,713 compared to significance value of 0,005. Because of significance value is smaller than 0,005, so Ho is rejected. As the consequence, it illustrates that H2 which refers to Teacher Competence influences on learning motivation of student is accepted.The variable of Class Physical Environment shows t-value approximatelyy 2,075 compared to significance value of 0,040. Since the significance value is smaller than 0,05 so as the reslut Ho is rejected, it reveals that H3 which refers to Class Physical Environment influences on learning motivation of student is accepted.
Furthermore, The variable of Family Environment shows t-value approximatelyy 2,010 compared to significance value of 0,047. Since the significance value is smaller than 0,05 so as the reslut Ho is rejected, it reveals that H4 which refers to Family Environment influences on learning motivation of student is accepted.
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||T||Sig.|
|Source: Processed data, 2018|
Coefficient determination analysis is conducted to identify how much the contribution of Teachers' Competence, Class Physical Environment and Family Environment toward student learning motivation. Model summary tabel shows the value of Adjusted R is 0,320. Adjusted R is multipled by 100% to know the magnitude of R in which it is 32%. However, to identify the value of other factors' outside R influence, it can be calculated by 100% minus 32% as the value of R which equal with 68%. Moreover, it can be explained that 32% of student learning motivation is affected by Teachers' Competence, Class Physical Environment and Family Environment. Conversely, the rest approximately 68% is explained by other variable outside regression model of this research.
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
|Source: Processed data, 2018|
The amount of contribution of each independent variable to dependent varible is partially known through partial determination coefficient (r2). The result of the test by multiple linear regresssion analysis using computer program of SPSS 21.0 for windows. Moreover, the result of partial determination coefficient will be explained on 1.6 below. The table of coefficient in correlation partial demonstrates partial determination coefficient (r2) of Teachers' Competence in (0,3982) x 100% = 15,8%. The contribution amount of class physical environment is (0,188 2) x 100%= 3,53 and contribution amount of class physical environment is (0,182 2) x 100%= 3,31% respectively.
Regarding to student descriptive calculation in terms of Teachers' Competence, it can be seen from the respond which was given to the respondent. The result is below.
Based on table of 1.7 it can be known that Teachers' Competence variable index has 73,68% of the score which includes as very competent criteria (70,01-100). The highest score of Teachers' Competence variable index is shown by personality competence indicator- approximately 76,74%- while the lowest score of Teachers' Competence variable index is shown by pedagogic competence within average score of 68,24%.
The point which has essential things to be watched out is pedagogic competence. It is proven by the lowest value of indicator index, so this indicator has to be totally attention to be improved compared to other indicators. Regarding to the data, the conclusion which can be written is each indicator that has represented teachers' competence of administration department in Vocational High School (SMK) in the whole part of Pekalongan city enables to improve student learning motivation. Based on descriptive calculation of class physical environment which is reviewed by student respond, the result is below.
Based on table of 1.8, it can be known that variable index of class physical environment is 70,97% including very adequate criteria. The highest score of class physical environment variable index is shown by Easily Achieved indicator- approximately 77,25%- while the lowest score of class physical environment variable index is shown by magnificence within average score of 64,07%.
The point which has essential things to be watched out is magnificence. It is proven by the lowest value of indicator index, so this indicator has to be totally attention to be improved compared to other indicators. Regarding to the data, the conclusion which can be written is each indicator that has represented class physical environment enables to improve student learning motivation.
Based on table of 1.9, it can be known that variable index of family environment is 79,12% including very supportive criteria (70,01-100). The highest score of class physical family environment variable index is shown by relation between members indicator -approximately 8%1,42- while the lowest score of family environment variable index is shown by parents attention within average score of 76,90%. The point which has essential things to be watched out is parents attention. It is proven by the lowest value of indicator index, so this indicator has to be totally attention to be improved compared to other indicators. Regarding to the data, the conclusion which can be written is each indicator that has represented family environment enables to improve student learning motivation.
Furthermore, simultanously, the study shows that Teachers' Competence, Class Physical Environment and Family Environment together affect positively and significantly toward student motivation. It is proven by F test result which shows significant value of Teachers' Competence, Class Physical Environment and Family Environment is less than 0,05, approximately 20,022 2,70. In addition, simultaneous determination coefficient (R ) is 32,00% and the rest of 68,00% is affected by other factors which are not examined by this study, since there are many other factors which enable to influence learning motivation of people.
Sardiman (2014: 75) mentions that "Motivation can be stimulated by external factors but the motivation is to grow within a person". Each student has different levels of motivation, which can be influenced by both instristence and extrinsic factors, both of which have an important role in motivating students. This is suitable with the opinion of Djamarah (2016: 158) that "In the process of teaching and learning interaction, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, is needed to encourage students to be diligent in studying. The role of extrinsic motivation is large enough to guide learners in learning ". For instance, independent variables in this study which include outside factors (extrinsic) are teachers' competence, class physical environment and family environment. Therefore, So learning motivation can occur because of the factors from the outside. This is reinforced by Utomo research (2009) that the intensity of a student's motivation will greatly determine the level of achievement of learning.
The study was supported by research of Kusumawardani et al. (2015) and Murtiasih (2015), that teachers' competence, class physical environment, and family environment influence learning motivation. Based on the hypothesis test on t test conducted in this study proves that teachers' competence variable has an influence on student learning motivation which is obtained t value of 4.713 with a significance 0.005 0.05. Therefore, H2 which states "There is influence and significant competence of teachers on student learning motivation" is accepted. The effect is positive, approximately (0,3982) x 100% = 15,8% obtained from partial determination coefficient analysis result, so that if the teacher competence improves, it means that teachers have high competence as the result, student's learning motivation will also improve.
It is in line with Mulyasa (2013) which states that "In learning process, the main task of teachers is managing the environment to support the change in behavior and the formation of student competence such as pre test". Since pre test plays an important role in the learning process. Pre test funcionate to identfy the level of student progress related to learning process.
Based on the results of the observation indicates that teachers start the learning process without giving pre-test to students so that students become unfocused and not active while studying in the classroom. It can cause students to be less motivated to learn, because there is no encouragement or need to study. This is reinforced by the study of Angga (2015), there is a significant positive influence of teacher's pedagogic competence on student learning motivation.
Furthermore, based on the results of Hypothesis Test on Test t conducted in this study proves that the class physical environment variable has an influence on student learning motivation which is obtained t value of 2.075 with a significance of 0,040 0,05. In the other words, H3 which states "There are influences and significant class physical environment on student learning motivation" is accepted. The influence is positive value of (0,1882) x 100% = 3.53% obtained from the analysis of partial determination coefficient. In the other words, if a good class physical environment can be interpreted, student learning motivation will also increase. Additionally, it goes in the same way as Usman's (2009) theory which states that "Good environment is challenging and stimulates students to study, gives a sense of security and satisfaction in achieving the goals". The results of this study is reinforced by Khairani et al (2016) that "The condition of class physical environment should be arranged so well that it can support student learning activities".
Regarding to the hypothesis test on t test conducted in this study proves that the family environment variable has an influence on student learning motivation which is obtained t value of 2.010 with a significance value of 0.047 0.05. In other words, H4 which states "There are influences and significant family environment on student learning motivation" is accepted. The effect is positive value of (0.182 2) x 100% = 3.31% obtained from the results of partial determination coefficient analysis. Thus, a good family environment will improve students' learning motivation.
Based on the results of the above research, it can be concluded that (1) Teachers' competence, Class physical environment, and family environment significantly influence student learning motivation. (2) Teachers' competence significantly influence students' learning motivation, so the better teachers' competence, the higher students' learning motivation. (3) Class physical environment significantly influence students' learning motivation, so the better class physical environment the higher students' learning motivation. (4) Family environment has a significant effect on students' learning motivation, so the better students' family environment, the higher students' learning motivation.
Regarding to the research conducted and the analysis according to researcher capacity, the researcher has the following suggestions (1) Teacher should give pre test or quiz before the lesson is begun or before learning process is started. (2) Teacher should direct the students to keep the cleanliness and magnificence of the class by throwing the garbage in its place and making the rules of classroom cleanliness with the aim to provide amenities for students, so that will improve students' learning motivation. (3) Parents should be more attention to the students, for instance by reminding to study and teaching good habits.