KnE Social Sciences | International Conference on Economics, Business and Economic Education 2018 (ICE-BEES 2018) | pages: 211–223

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1. Introduction

In an educational institution human resources (HR) is a very important factor in the agency is not an exception of higher education institutions. This is because the human resources in the college is the basic capital of the organization to perform activities to achieve goals. The establishment of universities has functions and roles, among others, as a center for the development of Science and Technology, the center of policy review and moral strength to seek and find the truth, as well as the center of the development of civilization of the nation. Of course, the functions and roles are performed by the lecturers. Therefore, lecturers have important functions and roles in universities. This can be seen from all activities undertaken by the lecturers through activities in the field of education, research and community service known as Tridharma Perguruan Tinggi. Lecturer is one of the many professions that exist in the world. Like other professions, lecturers have special characteristics that distinguish them from other professions. Meanwhile, the profession of lecturers also has its own rules which must be obeyed by every lecturer as regulated in the Law on lecturers namely Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 14 Year 2005, concerning Teachers and Lecturers.

The success of lecturers as educators in performing their functions and roles in universities is influenced by many factors, one of them is the work spirit factor. The low level of work morale, then very influential on the performance that can be achieved by lecturers who are manifested in the form of creativity and initiatives in the field of education, research and community service known as Tridharma Perguruan Tinggi. If there is a morale in the lecturers, it can be expected that the task will be done faster and better. The lack of optimization of article publication on macro or scopus-grade journal indexes at the national level is also based on universities. In this context, things tend to be contradictory to those experienced by the State University of Semarang. This is because the ranking of universities in Indonesia version kemendikbud in 2016 the 17th rank, while in 2017 increased one level in 2017 at the rank 16 (https://ristekdikti.go.id, 2016 and 2017). Based on these data it becomes interesting to note that the impetus to publicize lecturers of the Faculty of Economics UNNES has increased significantly because it exceeds the target. And at the same time it brings the possibility in 2018 to increase or exceed the target. Therefore, in this study will reveal how the achievement motivation from the views of the three dimensions of both the dimensions of achievement needs, the need for affiliation, and the need for power affect the intent and performance of lecturers publication.

Motivation can be interpreted as a stimulus or encouragement to the lecturer to work with the best performance. Robbins (2007) defines motivation as a willingness to expend high levels of effort for organizational goals, conditioned by the ability of the effort to meet multiple individual needs. Based from David Mc Clelland's motivational theory is called Achievement Motivation Theory (AMT). The theory shows that from these three needs improve performance ie need for achievement, need for affiliation, need for power (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2005; 256-257). However, based on the contradictions of research between the three dimensions of motivation, there is a support that need for achievement, need for affiliation, need for power affect the performance (Trisnaningsih and Suparwati, 2012) Rizal, et.al (2014), Kwapon, et.al (2015), Yusdi Anra and Martinis Yamin (2017). While the research of Abdulsalam & Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli (2012), Jusmin, et.al (2016) shows that the dimensions of motivation have no effect on performance.

Based on the research gap, in this study propose the intention as a mediation influence the three dimensions of the motivation on performance. This is based on two-factor theory is a motivational theory that explains the two main groups needs to close the shortcomings and development needs [10]. This theory divides the situation that influences one's attitude toward work into two groups of satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Satisfiers can be regarded as a factor of motivator or intrinsic factor. Satisfiers are aspects of the aspect embodied in the work and are the driving force that arises from within each individual. While dissatisfiers or commonly called hygienne factors or extrinsic factors in the work are aspects of the thrust that arise from outside the individual self, especially from the organization where he works. Therefore, this requires intention as a liaison according to Herzberg (1959), which is classified as a motivational factor, among others, is a person's job, success achieved, opportunities to grow, career advancement and recognition of others. While hygiene or maintenance factors include, among other things, the status of a person in the organization, the relationship of an individual to his / her employer, a person's relationships with his / her colleagues, supervisory techniques applied by supervisors, organizational policies, administrative systems in the organization, working conditions and reward systems in effect, which will affect a person's intentions to improve performance.

Working intentions arise when employees evaluate what, if anything, can be done to change or prevent damage to themselves or to improve an already positive situation (Folkman, Schaefer, & Lazarus, 1979; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Working intentions are generated to overcome realizing difficulties or desirable needs and desires that arise from positive or negative feelings about well-being (Bagozzi, 1992; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Intent is used to guide the intended action. There are two types of intentions: their intentions and contingent intentions (Heckhausen & Beckmann, 1990). From the explanation of the above research and the above theory, the work intention is proposed to be the mediator of the influence of need for power, need for affiliation, need for achievement on the performance of international publication scopus indexed. Based on the logic of thinking and support from previous studies hence can be formulated hypothesis as follows:

  • there is a positive and significant impact of need for achievement on the performance of article publication in scopus indexed journals.

  • there is a positive and significant influence need for affiliation on the performance of article publication in scopus indexed journals.

  • there is a positive and significant impact of need for power on the performance of article publication in scopus indexed journals.

  • there is a positive and significant impact of need for achievement on work intentions

  • there is a positive and significant impact of need for affiliation on work intentions

  • there is a positive and significant influence need for power on work intentions

  • there is a positive and significant impact of need for power on the performance of article publication in scopus indexed journals through job intent

  • there is a positive and significant impact of need for affiliation on the publication of articles in scopus indexed journals through job intent

  • there is a positive and significant impact of need for achievement on the publication of articles in scopus indexed journals through job intent.

2. Method

This research is a study that tries to describe more deeply motivation factors that play a role in influencing the performance of lecturers publications in international journals scoopus indexed through work intentions. The research design used by the writer is correlational design to analyze the relationship between one variable with other variable or how a variable influence other variable. The data used in this study is the primary data obtained in the dissemination of research questionnaires to the respondents consisting of Lecturers State University of Semarang, which uses a sample with a population of 1033 people. Sampling method in this research, using slovin formula with 10% error then the sample obtained for 100. To obtain the required data, researchers used a questionnaire method with a likert scale for, while for the publication variable using a questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study is a tabulation questionnaire using the interval scale of aggre disagree (Fedinand, 2012: 124). Where each item of question is provided range 1-7 with the extreme angle SS strongly agree and STS strongly disagree, through the calculation of the index number with the five box method category.

After the data collected from the field then done the processing first (editing and data conversion) so that the data are widespread in the items questionnaires can be made more concise and simpler with the help of SPSS 21 program. Furthermore, the analysis is done so that raw data obtained from the field has meaning and meaning so that it can answer the problems posed. Thus, the data analysis in this study was conducted by:

  • Analysis of validity and reliability in this study, consists of two stages. Stage 1 analysis of the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, and the second stage is the validity and reliability of the internal / criteria. For validity is done by using the validity of the questionnaire through product moment correlation, while for the reliability of the questionnaire using the value of alpha cronbach with 0.7 cut value. Meanwhile, internal validity / criteria consist of convergent validity with cut value loading factor 0,7 and discriminant validity with AVE 0,5 value value (Average Variance Extracted). While for internal reliability testing / criteria use value of composite reliability above 0,7. Based on the results of validity and reliability of the questionnaire all items declared valid, because the value of the correlation is more than the cut value, and for the reliability of the questionnaire all items declared reliable, because the value of alpha cronbach more than 0.7.

  • Descriptive statistical analysis method by using the calculation of index number by using percentage.

  • Inferential statistical analysis method using path analysis technique that is by doing two-step regression, with method of bootstrapping, and test of mediation with sobel test.

3. Result and Discussion

Based on the data processed, the descriptive results that can be inferred from each - each variable is as follows:

  • In need for achivement variable with index score 54,3 with medium category

  • On variable need for affiliation with index score 51,9 with medium category

  • On variable need for power with index score 57.1 with medium category

  • At work intention variable with index score 41,3 with low category

After the calculation of the value of the index number, then the results of the research tested the confirmatory factor analysis with based on the principal component analysis shows the results of good factor analysis analysis for need for achievement variables, need for affiliation, need for power and work intent shows that the measurement model based on the value of Kaiser-Meyer -Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy shows value above 0.7, so the model is valid and fit to proceed into regression analysis. The hasi loading factor of each indicator, Average Variance Extracted Composite Reliability value, presented in the table as follows.

Table 1

Convergent Validity and Reliability Analysis of Variable Constructs Need For Achievement.


Indikator Loading factor Cut Value Keterangan Average Variance Extracted Composite Reliability KMO MSA
NACH1 0,823 0,6 Valid 0,727 (Valid) 0,914 (Reliabel) 0,789
NACH2 0,853 0,6 Valid
NACH3 0,898 0.6 Valid
NACH4 0,836 0,6 Valid
NOAF1 0,842 0,6 Valid 0,703 (Valid) 0,904 (Reliabel) 0,771
NOAF2 0,826 0,6 Valid
NOAF3 0,839 0.6 Valid
NOAF4 0,848 0,6 Valid
NOP1 0,897 0,6 Valid 0,708 (Valid) 0,906 (Reliabel) 0,754
NOP2 0,732 0,6 Valid
NOP3 0,881 0.6 Valid
NOP4 0,848 0,6 Valid
NK1 0,751 0,6 Valid 0,645 (Valid) 0,878 (Reliabel) 0,713
NK2 0,854 0,6 Valid
NK3 0,867 0.6 Valid
NK4 0,734 0,6 Valid
Source: Research Analysis in 2018

Path analysis in this research using bootstraping technique. This is a consequence that this study does not need to use classical assumptions, such as normality, multicollinearity and heterokesdasitas. This is because with the bootstraping resampling technique used to find the sampling distribution of an estimator with resampling procedure with the return of the original data, done by taking samples from the original sample with the original sample. Size. So the resampling method can work without requiring assumptions, since the original sample is used as a population [11]. The result of path analysis with bootstrapping with SPSS model extension from hayes in the following table:

Table 2

Results of Path Analysis with Bootstrapping Method. Source: Research Analysis in 2018.

fig-1.jpg

Meanwhile, in analyzing hypotheses 7 to hypothesis 9 using a test of a test for a mediation test. Here's the result of a test with SPSS extension from hayes.

Table 3

Sobel Test Results with Bootstrapping Method. Source: Research Analysis in 2018.

fig-2.jpg

Based on the results of data analysis using path analysis with the above bootstraping method can be described as follows:

  • Based on the empirical model of hypothesis 1 (H1) there is a positive and significant effect of need for achivement on the performance of article publication in scopus indexed journal, rejected. The result of data management is known that probability value of error rate ρ = 0,0518 with significance level 5%, Probability value (P), above 0,05. These results indicate that the higher the need for power can not improve the performance of faculty publications in scopus indexed journals. It shows that lack of optimization of lecturers' activities in doing things in new and creative ways, looking for feed backs about their actions, choosing a moderate risk in their actions, taking personal responsibility for their actions tends to fail to improve performance publication. The phenomenon can be explained in the description of respondents, namely encouragement for achievement of each lecturer less than optimal even though they have a desire. This is in contrast to the findings of Jusmin, Said, Bima, Alam (2016); Anra and Yamin (2017); Runi, Ramli, Nujum, Kalla (2017) stated that the need for achievement has a positive and significant effect on performance. However, it should be understood that there are characteristics of the performance of lecturers' publications compared with the performance of lecturers in doing tridharma college. This finding is also supported by research from Abdulsalam & Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli (2012), Jusmin, et.al (2016).

  • Based on the empirical model of hypothesis 2 (H2) there is a positive and significant influence need for affiliation on the performance of the publication of articles in scopus indexed journal, rejected. The result of data management is known that probability value of error rate ρ = 0,0506 with significance level 5%, Probability value (P), above 0,05. It shows that lecturers' activities pay more attention to the aspects of personal relationships that exist in their work, rather than in terms of tasks that exist on the job itself, while lecturers are less cooperative, tend to seek agreement from others, while some lecturers prefer to be alone, improve publishing performance. This is based on the research of Abdulsalam and Mawoli (2012), which shows that the need for affiliation has an effect on the performance of publications, although the research of Jusmin, et.al (2016) supports the findings of this study, while making clear that the relationship between need for affiliation with publication performance requires mediation variables.

  • Based on the empirical model of hypothesis 3 (H3) there is a positive and significant effect of need for power on the performance of article publication in scopus indexed journal, rejected. The result of data management is known that probability value of error level ρ = 0,3704 with significance level 5%, Probability value (P), above 0,05. It shows that lecturers tend not to help others even if they are not requested, are less active in determining the direction of the activities of the organization in which they belong, are inactive in collecting goods or belonging to a society that may reflect prestige, and are less sensitive to the structure of interpersonal influences of groups or organizations can not improve the performance of publications, this is counter to the research of Kwapong, Opoku and Donyina (2015); Jusmin, Said, Bima, Alam (2016), although the findings of Abdulsalam & Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli (2012) are in line with this study. This insignificant result also reinforces that to connect need for power with publicity performance can not be directly, but requires a mediation variable.

  • Based on the empirical model of hypothesis 4 (H4) there is a positive and significant effect of need for achivement on job intentions, accepted. The result of data management is known that probability value of error level ρ = 0,0011 with significance level 5%, Probability value (P), above 0,05. It shows that lack of optimization of the lecturer in doing things in new and creative ways, seeking feedback about his actions, choosing moderate risk in his actions, taking personal responsibility for his actions tends to be successful in improving the good work intent intentions to move, intentions in social engagement, willpower intentions, institutional support, and intent to perform. It supports the research of Trisnaningsih and Suparwati (2012), and the achievement motivation theory of David Mc Clelland, so to improve work intentions are in dire need of need for achivement..

  • Based on empirical model of hypothesis 5 (H5) there is influence positively and significant need for affiliation to work intention, rejected. The result of data management is known that probability value of error level ρ = 0,0000 with significance level 5%, Probability value (P), above 0,05. It shows that lecturers' activities are adequately concerned with the personal relationships inherent in their work, rather than in terms of tasks in the work itself, whereas lecturers are cooperative, tend to seek agreement from others, while some more cooperative lecturers can increase their intentions good work of intention to move, intention in social engagement, willful intentions of effort, intention of supporting institutions, and intent to perform. This is in line with the research of Abdulsalam and Mawoli (2012), and the theory of achievement motivation David Mc Clelland, so to improve work intentions, it is in need need for affiliation.

  • Based on the empirical model of hypothesis 6 (H6) there is a positive and significant effect of need for power on work intentions, rejected. The result of data management is known that probability value of error level ρ = 0,0000 with significance level 5%, Probability value (P), above 0,05. The results indicate that the lecturer who tends to help others although the help is not requested, is quite active in determining the direction of the activities of the organization in which he is located, is quite active in collecting goods or belonging to a society that may reflect the prestige, and is sensitive to the structure of interpersonal influences of groups or organizations can improve the intention of good work of intention to move, intention in social engagement, the willing intentions of sensibilities, the intention of supporting the institution, and the intention to perform. It supports Rizal, Idrus, Djumahir, Mintarti (2014), and David Mc Clelland's achievement motivation theory, so to improve work intentions it is necessary for need for power.

  • Based on the empirical model of hypothesis 7 (H7) there is a positive and significant effect of need for achivement on the performance of article publication in scopus indexed journal through job intention, accepted. The result of data management is known that the probability value of the error rate in the test sobel ρ = 0,0000 with the significance level of 5%, Probability (P) value, above 0,05. It shows that with the increase of work intention, it will have an impact on increasing the influence of need for achievement on the performance of lecturer publication. This can fill the research gap from the contradictions of previous research. This finding also reinforces the theory of two factors and the theory of intention, so that the synthesis derivative of this study in the form of this research model proved significantly.

  • Based on the empirical model of hypothesis 8 (H8) there is a positive and significant influence need for affiliation on the performance of the publication of articles in scopus indexed journal, rejected. The result of data management is known that probability value of error level ρ = 0,0000 with significance level 5%, Probability value (P), above 0,05. It shows that with the increase of work intention, it will have an impact on increasing the influence of need for affiliation on the performance of lecturers publication. This can fill the research gap from the contradictions of previous research. This finding also reinforces the theory of two factors and the theory of intention, so that the synthesis derivative of this study in the form of this research model proved significantly.

  • Based on the empirical model of hypothesis 9 (H9) there is a positive and significant effect of need for power on the performance of article publication in scopus indexed journal, rejected. The result of data management is known that probability value of error level ρ = 0,0000 with significance level 5%, Probability value (P), above 0,05. It shows that with the increase of work intention, it will have an impact on increasing the influence of need for affiliation on the performance of lecturers publication. This can fill the research gap from the contradictions of previous research. This finding also reinforces the theory of two factors and the theory of intention, so that the synthesis derivative of this study in the form of this research model proved significantly.

Analysis of influence is done to analyze the strength of influence between constructs both the direct, indirect, and total influence can be explained as follows:

Table 4

Direct, Indirect and Total Influence.


Path Direct Effect Indirect Effect Total Effect
NACH WI PUB 0,1637 0,0744 0,2381
NOAF WI PUB 0,1678 0,1165 0,2843
NOP WI PUB 0,0837 0,1089 0,1926
Source: Research Analysis in 2018

4. Conclusions

Based on the results of analysis and discussion that have been described in the previous chapter it can be deduced on the hypothesis as follows.

  • That to improve the performance of lecturers publication in International Journal of Scopus Indexed need for achievement variables, need for affiliation, need for power can not influence directly without going through work intention. With the intention of work then the need for achievement, need for affiliation, need for power can effectively improve the performance of lecturers publications in International Journal Scopus Indexed.

  • The research model constructed from two grand theories namely Achievement Motivation Theory (AMT) Mc Clelland and the theory of intention effectively can have an impact to improve performance especially in the performance of lecturer publication in International Journal Scopus Indexed.

The results of this study are expected to provide suggestions from the results of this study which is expected to contribute in the development of policy kepengawaian and academic so that can improve the performance of lecturers publications in International Journal Scopus Indexed then done with the following efforts.

  • The academic field needs to prioritize to build the spirit of achievement and the learner's affiliated needs rather than promised with mere incentives.

  • Academic fields need to build a culture of discussion, research-based culture center study center-study in each faculty unit or department.

  • Provision of incentives is not focused on individual lecturers, but through increased research center-based research funding. It tends to be effective considering the publication which is a tri dharma college is an academic culture.

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