Nature is created by God, among others, is to be used for humans' need. The usage can be seen from both the material and the non-material sides. On the material side, all nature resources are used by humans for their daily life. While from the non-material side, nature is considered as a teacher and a place to study. The implementation of learning about nature can be seen from Javanese's tradition of deciding the right time to plant paddies, identifying season change, and reading compass points to hunt fish based on the signs given by the nature. These behaviors are local wisdoms used to solve problems in humans' life. In the nature, there is also inspiration to behave rigidly in facing life problems. Like a mountain, we should not escape from any of our problems. Another rigid behavior can be learned from ants. Even though their bodies are small, they never give up on looking for food (Hanum, 2017: 7 & 48). The inspiration coming from the nature is also specifically implemented in creating proper names. This paper tries to discuss proper names in Javanese and Germany societies. This study, at the same time, proves that there is some harmony between nature and humans in the forms of dictions used for proper names. This harmony is universal, at least it will be proven through two significantly different languages, i.e Javanese and Germany.
2. Literature Review
Nature, humans and languages
Basically, there is some desire to blend with nature and the surroundings (Soekanto, 1990). The same thing is declared by Aristotle long before, that humans are zoon politicon i.e. social creatures who like living in groups and looking for friends to live together. Thus, human life can develop. It is also revealed that besides living in nature, humans also live actively in a social environment . From the above elaboration, it can be understood that there is some interaction between humans and nature. The interaction, among others, can be seen from humans' desire to learn about how to maintain their living environment, and lessen air pollution by planting plants. This desire shows humans' desire to be close to nature. Another form of the interaction is humans' desire to utilize the nature excessively like taking the most of nature without any calculation so it causes an imbalance. The desire to be close to nature is basically growing naturally as the nature created by God has a very great power . Being close to God's creation can develop a deep feeling of being grateful and a feeling of loving God, The Omniscient Creator. By learning the nature power, humans can get some inspiration to express the result obtained through oral or written forms. This desire to express, by Lacan , is mentioned as the desire to perfect humans' lacks shown through words. In this context, language has the role of being the media of interaction between humans and nature. One of the inspiration humans get from the nature in terms of expressing through words is the existence of proper names. This is supported by Alwasilah (2008) who declares that language is a means of realizing mind that relates to realities.
Proper name themes: Javanese And Germany
Proper name has an important role in humans' life. Even, Halim (2001) states that the requirement of a human to be recognized is the proper name he or she has. A proper name is a self identity that differs someone from another one. Generally, it is in the form of a word depending on the society culture. In Javanese culture, it is still common to have one-word name because Javanese culture does not demand to use any family name in each proper name (www.namamia.com/nama-bayi, https://www.fatih-io.com). On the contrary, Germany society demands the use of family name as a part of someone's name. Therefore, a Germany proper name consists of at least two unsures namely forename-`Vorname' ((https://baby-vorname.de) and family name-”Familienname” or called “Nachname”, https://www.deutsche-nachnamen.de/). Below are several examples
|Javanese Names:||Germany Names:|
|(1) Kartini||(for a female)||Petra Steiner|
|(2) Kartono||(for a male)||Peter Hartmann|
|(3) Parwati||(for a female)||Stefanie Becker|
|(4) Parwoto||(for a male)||Stefan Schmidt|
From the above examples, it can be identified that both Javanese and Germany Societies have some rule for naming females and males. Name (1) and (3) are for females and name (2) and (4) are for males. From the above examples, some of Germany first names are Petra, Peter, Stefanie, Stefan and Germany family names are Steiner, Hartmann, Becker, and Schmidt.
The creation of a proper name relates to how the parents have some hope to give a good identity to their children. Through the name, parents put in some hope and prayer for their children. As how names are the result of a creative innovation, the inspiration may come from anywhere. The number is unlimited. Moreover, each individual has a personal desire as shown in hopes and goals expressed through proper names. Parents who hope that their children will be good at sport will create a name that relates to sport. The followings are some of the examples.
Some examples of names above represent the parents' hope for their children to be good at sport. Name (5), (6), and (7) illustrate the parents' hope for their children to have some potency on volleyball, sprint and marathon. Vollyball is game played by two teams, ussually of six players on side, in which the players use their hands to bat a ball back and forth over a high net, trying to make the ball touch the court within the opponents' playing area before it can be returned (https://www.britannica.com/sports/volleyball). Sprint is to run a short distance very past. The distance i the sprint is 100, 200, or 400 meters. Marathon ist a long running race of about 42 kilometeres or 26 mile (https://oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/ topic/athletics/marathon,sprint).
Coincidentaly, the parents of the children having the names above are sport teachers. This information is told by the people having names (5) and (6) who have ever studied in Yogyakarta State University. Meanwhile, the person having name (7) is the elder sibling of Sprint.
Besides those various names representing the parents' hope, there are also universal names. In this context, there is some possibility of having similar themes of names. One of the name themes used by societies all over the world is the theme of nature. As what is stated earlier, humans have some inner desire to blend with nature. Therefore, that desire is instinctive.
The implication of this is the existence of many names related to nature like themes of flower names, sky objects and other nature unsures (soil, fire, wind and water). Some of those themes are found in proper names of Javanese (https://namaanakperempuan.net, https://kitabnamabayi.com, https://www.fatih-io.com) and Germany societies (https://baby-vorname.de, https://www.beliebte-vorname.de, https://www.Familienbande24.de) as shown in the table below.
Even though the two societies live apart, there are some similarities of creating proper names. These names can be found in the Java society and Germany society. Nevertheless, in the process of creating proper names, it is possible to borrow the words from other languages (eg. Agni from Sanskrit and Celia, Stella, Gemma from Latin). It happens almost in all societies. This fact shows that nature becomes some inspiration for human in living their life including how they create proper names. The nature created by God gives many benefits needed by humans both outwardly and inwardly. Therefore, it can be said that there is some harmony between humans and nature. It is, among others, expressed by language including words created in proper names.
3. Research Method
This study tries to answer the question of whether there is any similarity between Javanese and Germany proper names. Javanese proper names are based on Yogyakarta society in Indonesia. The data were obtained from press and electronic media. The themes of Javanese proper names were then compared to those Germany ones that have been published in the internet. The data were analyzed qualitatively by using categorization based on the similarity-themes between Javanese and Germany proper names.
As what is said by Aristotle, a famous philosopher from Yunan, that humans have some inner desire to be closed to nature. The closeness between humans and nature grows instinctively as a need of human to create some harmony in life. Harmony means harmonious. With the creation of nature, humans get a teacher and place of study which is unlimited. From nature, humans get various inspiration to develop their life. One of the inspirations coming from nature is that used for creating names. As what has been explained before, several nature unsures in proper names are found in both Javanese and Germany societies.
In creating names, there is some interesting process to discuss that someone decides to choose a proper name by using certain nature unsures. This is because there are a lot of nature unsures that can be used for proper names such as sun, star, sky, fire, light, water and flower. In the creative process of creating name for a new-born baby, someone will select several nature unsures that he or she is going to use for the proper name. This indicates that not all names of nature unsures can be used for creating proper names. For example, nature elements that are considered bad by society of course will not be chosen as proper names. Chemical substances in the nature such as chromium and arsenic will unlikely be chosen as proper names since people know that those two chemical substances contain deadly poison. Chromium is a chemical substance that is carcinogenic and able to put someone in a risk of suffering from cancer (Said, 2010: 137-138 from http://ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/ JAI/article/download/2464/2075). Meanwhile, arsenic has been long known as a substance used to kill other people. Because of the poison and effect caused by those two substances, they will unlikely be chosen as proper names. If society agrees that a proper name is a symbol of the name giver's hope for the person to be better in the future, the name given will be made as good as possible. Society's perception about proper names that are suitable for representing their hopes influences the usage of the symbols in their life. Perception is a form of a society's culture. This is what happens to the selection of proper names. From name (5), (6), and (7), it is known that Javanese society has some agreement that the theme of sport is good to be used for proper names. Meanwhile, Germany society may have a different perception. Sport-theme names are relatively difficult to find in Germany society. However, in the case of nature-theme names, the two societies have the same agreement.
The selection of proper name using nature unsures names is, among others, influenced by individual desire. This desire appears based on someone's personal experience. According to Lacan, this desire is expressed through language represented by words. The same thing apply to the phenomenon of creating proper names. Further, Lacan states that this desire is actually an effort of perfecting oneself. Thus, it can be concluded that there is some relation between the creation of proper names and hopes or prayers humans have in the names. From this theory of Lacan, it can be understood that the hopes in the names are forms of hopes and ideals that have not been achieved by the one giving the names. At this point, it can be predicted that there is some esie to realize the harmony between humans and nature through the creation of names containing nature unsures. In other words, nature themes in proper names is the realization of the harmony between humans and nature expressed through language.
The results of the study show that there are some similarities between the themes of those two societies. For instance, there are proper names related to flower. Based on the result, it can be concluded that there are several forms of harmony between human, language, and nature. A universal law is applied to each aspect of life. There are similarities, and differences including those of language over the world.