KnE Social Sciences | The 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature (AICLL) | pages: 925–933


1. Introduction

The term “affability” implies ability, to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction, and to experience pride when one does the right thing and guilt or shame when one does not [2,9]. Sigelman, also states that there are three basic components of affability: an affective or emotional component, acognitive component, a behavioral component.

The protagonist's affabilities found in the novel Mencari Cinta yang Hilang written by Abdulkarim Khiratullah are good actions. The affabilities of the protagonist in the novel are analysed based on Budiningsih (2004). She states that affability can be categorised into some kinds: empathy, obedience, bravery, cooperation, enthusiasm, kinfhearted, honesty, loyalty, perseverance, love nad affectuin, sacrefice, sincerity, and strong belief.

The novel Mencari Cinta yang Hilang written by Abdulkarim Khiratullah can be seen and studied from various angels, such as financial problem, love, arranged marriage, and female domination and this study is limited within the range of the kinds of the protagonist's affabilities found in the novel such as: Empathy, Obedience, and Cooperation.

Affabilty is a very important rule implemented in a society because it can be a guideline in life as well as the protector of society itself. Affabilities are important because by knowing one's affabilty, we will get better life. Affabilty not only teaches us about good relationship among members of society but also teaches about good relationship between humans and God. However, this study will be useful for the readers to know the affabilty elements especially its kinds such as empathy, obedience, and cooperation.

This study will be useful for other researchers. One of the dominant theories of affabilty is the theory proposed by Budiningsih (2004) in which it is stated that affability affects someone to do good action. At the present moment, people judge someone based on his or her character not totally on his or her knowledge or smartness. A person of good affabilty could be stationed anywhere as such a person could easily adapt himself to any type of time and space.

2. Literature Review

Affability

Affability is the ability of someone to see the standards of good and evil, which govern an individual's behavior and choices. Individual's affability may derive from society and government, religion, or self [3]. When affability derives from society and government they, of necessity, may change as the laws and morals of the society change. An example of the impact of changing laws on moral values may be seen in the case of marriage vs. “living together.” [2]

In past generations, it was rare to see couples who lived together without the benefit of a legal matrimonial ceremony. In recent years, couples that set up household without marriage are nearly as plentiful as traditional married couples. But, not only are such couples more plentiful, they are also more accepted by other individuals in our society. In earlier society, the laws and morals simply came from the Roman system of law, which was largely based on the Ten Commandments. As society moved into the modern era that earlier system of laws, affability became more and more eroded [8].

Affability also derives from within one's own self. This is clearly demonstrated in the behavior of older infants and young toddlers. If a child has been forbidden to touch or take a certain object early on, they know enough to slowly look over their shoulder to see if they are being observed before touching said object (Jenkins, Alicia Beth. 2013: 127). There is no need for this behavior to be taught; it is instinctive. Once, however, any form of discipline is applied to modify the child's behavior, the child now gains the capacity within himself to distinguish his right behavior from his wrong behavior. Now, the child can make correct choices based on his own knowledge. The choices that are made by an individual from childhood to adulthood are between forbidden and acceptable, kind or cruel, generous or selfish (Kohlberg, L. 1976: 212). A person may, under any given set of circumstances, decide to do what is forbidden. If this individual possesses moral values, going against them usually produces guilt.

Kinds of affability

Budiningsih (2004: 57-78) distinguishes the affaility into several knids as stated below.

Empathy

The word Empathy comes from “pathos” meaning deep feeling. Empathy is a feeling where someone tries to understand the condition of someone else. The word empathy is different from sympathy. The difference between sympathy and empathy is that sympathy is more focused on his own feelings for others, while other people's feelings are not in full attention. Empathy is more focused on the feeling of the others' condition [2].

Obedience

Obedience is as basic an element in the structure of social life as one can point to. Some system of authority is a requirement of all communal living, and it is only the man dwelling in isolation who is not forced to respond, through defiance or submission, to the commands of others. Obedience, as a determinant of behavior, is of particular relevance to our time [2].

Obedience is the complying with a command or precept. It is here regarded not as a transitory and isolated act but rather as a virtue or principle of righteous conduct. It is then said to be the moral habit by which one carries out the order of his superior with the precise intent of fulfilling the injunction. The obligation of obedience is as an obvious consequence of the subordination established in the world by natural and positive law. The idea which is the subjection of any sort of one man to another is incompatible with human freedom, a notion that has vogue in the religious and political teachings [6].

3. Research Method

The method is used in this research is descriptive qualitative method. Descriptive means to describe something such as: circumstance, situation, condition, event, action, etc. Arikunto (2013) and Moleong, L. J. (2004) states that descriptive research is the research that study intended to investigate the circumstances, conditions, situation, events and activities.

Descriptive research is a simpler research than the other research, because in this research the researcher does not do anything with the object. In this research, the researcher just describes about something happen in the research report.

The primary data source in this study is derived from the novel Mencari Cinta Yang Hilang by Abdulkarim Khiratullah consisting of words, phrases, and sentences illustrating the affability from the protagonist. Secondary data sources are sources that do not directly provide the data to the researcher. Secondary data sources such as documentation and official archives can support the research. Secondary data were obtained from a number of places, offices, and agencies. Secondary data is very valuable for researchers to more understanding of the problems that made the object research. In this study, the secondary data source is taken from books, journal and websites including references related to this study.

The analysis is focused on obtaining the answers of the two questions stated in the problem of the study. The data analysis procedure that is used in this study is descriptive analysis, which includes to find out the kinds of affability of the protagonist in the novel Mencari Cinta yang Hilang written by Abdulkarim Khiratullah, and to expose how the affability of protagonist applied in the novel Mencari Cinta yang Hilang written by Abdulkarim Khiratullah.

4. Discussion

Empathy

Empathy is a feeling where someone tries to understand the condition of someone else. The word empathy is different from sympathy. The difference between sympathy and empathy is that sympathy is more focused on his own feelings for others, while other people's feelings are not the focus, while empathy is more focused on the feelings of the others' condition.

Often times the importance of empathy is often underestimated. It should be taught in primary school by teachers in cooperation with the pupils' families. Kids are encouraged to learn new computer programs, to solve tough mathematics problems, and to play new music instruments. They should be encouraged to become empathic people who empathize with problems of the family members, their classmates, and their acquaintances. By doing so, we would make our lives much more meaningful and joyful. On the contrary, insensitivity and indifference to others' agony and suffering will end up being in a robot world where people live without any feeling. The empathy of the protagonist of the novel, Fauzi, can be seen in the following quotation:

I am sad to hear the words of Mrs. Azeza. In the fact Mr. Baharuddin is a good man, the proof he did not want to involve his wife in the company's problems (Khiratullah, 2008: 81)

The quotation above shows Fauzi `s emphaty to the people around him. He shows much emphaty to Mr Baharuddin. He knows that Mr.Baharuddin is a good man but he is always affected by his strong emotion and he could not control his emotion; as the consequence any person who has done a slight mistake before him will be rewarded with his harsh attitude. In this case, Riri has become the frequent visitor of his emotion. He does not only use his words, but also his hands.

Empathy includes the ability to sense the emotional state of others, feeling sympathetic and trying to resolve the problem, and taking the perspective of others.

I had a glimpse of view; Riri is still very young and beautiful. She wears a large veil; it seems no less religious knowledge. I rarely see the maids who looked like Riri. I noticed a punch in her left cheek. I hear it often receive maltreatment from her employer a few months ago. A little mistake she does, her employer directly hit her. Riri is pity. It has long been a burden on my mind. (Khiratullah, 2008: 63)

From the quotation above, it can be concluded that Fauzi shows much empathy towards Riri. Empathy is the ability to respond to the wishes of others unspoken. This ability is seen as the key to raising the intensity and depth of our relationships with others. In addition, Empathy is one of the keys to success in inter-personal relations with trying to understand a problem from the viewpoint or feelings of the other person. Through empathy, individuals will be able to develop a deep understanding of a problem. Understanding others will encourage sharing between individuals.

Empathy is how we perceive what is experienced by others. It is showed by Fauzi to Mr. Baharuddin. When he meets Mr. Baharuddin's wallet in the street he wants to give it back to Mr. Baharuddin. This is seen below:

"I am worried that this wallet is found by irresponsible hands. What a pity Mr. Baharuddin" said Fauzi. Farid replied "you still have a sense of pity for him, but he does not have the slightest pity. You are strang, zi " (Khiratullah, 2008:75)

The above quotation indicates that Fauzi feels what Riri feels. During this time Riri has been very patient through a period of difficulty. Riri actually goes to Saudi Arabia to continue studying, but because she has not enough money so that she has to be a housemaid of Mr. Baharuddin. She is often persecuted by Mr. Baharuddin. But after all this time Mr. Baharuddin is aware of all his mistakes and finally he lets Riri go to college. There is no more abuse. Riri is free now from any form of humiliation.

Obedience

There is need for obedience in human life. Obedience is necessary in private life, social life and in every other sphere of life where one is expected to do his duty or earn his livelihood. An individual must obey his elders or superiors. Children must obey their parents. Students must obey their teachers. We should remember that obedience is the rule of life and without it life is never complete.

Obedience to God

Taking on the obedience trait is a personal decision. By choosing to be obedient, one is gifted with trust, respect, and reliability. Honoring and maintaining obedience to God is what motivates me to become the best person I can be. Obedience, in human behavior, is the quality of being obedient, which describes the act of carrying out commands, or being actuated. Obedience differs from compliance, which is behavior influenced by peers, and from conformity, which is behavior intended to match that of the majority.

Fauzi in this novel shows obedient behavior by his obedience to God and always does five daily prayers, such as in the quotes below:

“Dzuhur prayer time almost entered. I put the book in its place. I motioned to Ihsan to finish reading. We go to mosque that is in front of the association, still in the same complex. This is an enormous mosque that became one of the university's prides.” (Khiratullah, 2008: 86)

Fauzi, then could be categorized as a pious man. He never neglects his duty, his religious duty, as seen below.

I'm not sleepy. I got up to the bathroom and took ablution and then prayed two rakaat. The atmosphere was so serene. The sound of crickets and frogs that blared made the atmosphere even lonelier. They also glorified God in a language that only God could understand. Unaware the tears ran down the cheeks. Prayer in the silence of the night, I felt so good. Nothing is more enjoyable than when the tears flow out, fear of punishment accompanied with a sense of hope and love mercy and favor. (Khiratullah, 2008: 23)

From the sentence above it indicates that Fauzi is very obedient to God. When everyone is asleep he is praying Tahajjud, a prayer done at the middle of night asking for forgiveness from God. All Muslims are supposed to observe this prayer.

Obedience to parents

Parents are to be respected and love as everything is form them. A child knows his God through his parents therefore parents must not be ignored whatever the reason may be. Obedience to parents is not just a part of moral values but also obligatory for Muslims. In this novel, Fauzi loves his mother very much. He always obeys his mother's words and always helps his mother, as seen in the following:

My Mother is getting old. She is already 49 years of age. As a child who always wants to filial, it is my duty to help her I will do all the work at home. I would help her washing, cooking, and cleaning the house. (Khiratullah, 2008: 10)

As a devoted son to parents, Fauzi diligently helps his mother in every way. It is hard for Fauzi to see her mother tired or in a certain trouble, that is why he always gives to his mother in everything.

After eating and dressing, I asked permission from my mother to go to mosque. I grabbed her hands and I kissed her hands solemnly. Her pleasure is a blessing for me. (Khiratullah, 2008: 16)

This shows that Fauzi respects his mother very much. He is going to observe his Maghrib prayer and he is expecting double blessings, one from God and another from his mother.

5. Conclusion

Affability is a positive action of every person and moral is the absolute thing that must be possessed by humans. Affability explicitly are matters related to the process of socialization of individuals and without affability man cannot do the socialization process. Affability of today has implicit values because many people have digresses from the corridor of good conduct. Affabilities are not only taught at schools but they begin from home. There is not even a single person in the world that has no affabilities in his life; the problem is the affibilities are always covered by nasty desires or evils so that the person concerned will fall into the criminal fields.

Fauzi, the protagonist of the novel, Mencari Cinta yang Hilang, has shown his affability in every step of his life in the forms of empathy, obedience and cooperation. He could feel the difficulties of others as if he were there standing as the participant. He does not only see the difficulty of others but every time he sees that someone is in trouble he would offer his hand. This is his distinctive quality. Obedience is what he praises very much as he is surrounded by the quality of obedience. He is obedient to his family, his mother, and his colleagues and above all he is obedient to God. He is a true follower of Islam. He never ignores his daily prayers. Fauzi is also known as a man of cooperation, meaning that he could work together with anyone in any situation. And he always gets involved in various forms of discussion and the one he is interested in very much is religion discussion. He is eager to know more and more about religion, in this matter Islam and because of this, just by look, people could say that he is a religious man.

References

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Arikunto, S. (2013). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik (edisi revisi VI). Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.

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Budiningsih, A. C. (2004). Pembelajaran Moral. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.

3 

Durkheim, Emile. 1961. Pendidikan Affibilitas, Moral: Suatu Studi, Teori dan Aplikasi Sosiologi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Erlangga.

4 

Khiratullah, Abdulkarim. (2008). Mencari Cinta yang Hilang. Jakarta: Republika.

5 

Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach. In T, lickona (Ed,), Moral development and behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston,

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Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral Study of Obidience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 371–378.

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Moleong, L. J. (2004). Metodelogi Penelitian Kualitatif (edisi revisi). Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

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Poespoprodjo, W. (1999). Filsafat Moral dan Afabilitas. Bandung: CV. Pustaka Grafika.

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Sigelman, Carol K. (1995). Life-Span Human Development. Menterey, Calif: Brooks/cole.

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Sugiyono. (2010). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

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