The protagonist is at the center of the story, making the key decisions, and experiencing the consequences of those decisions. The protagonist affects the main characters' circumstances as well, as they are often the primary actor propelling the story forward. If a story contains a subplot, or is a narrative made up of several stories, then the character is interpreted as the protagonist of each subplot or individual story. The study is focused on the protagonist's conflicts dealing with internal and external conflicts.
Conflict in literature refers to the different drives of the characters or forces involved. Conflict may be internal or external—that is, it may occur within a character's mind or between a character and exterior forces, (or point(s) of view). Conflict is most visible between two or more characters, usually a protagonist and an antagonist/enemy/ villain, but can occur in many different forms. A character may as easily find himself or herself in conflict with a natural force, such as an animal or a weather event, like a hurricane. The literary purpose of conflict is to create tension in the story, making readers more interested by leaving them uncertain which of the characters or forces will prevail.
2. Literature Review
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.
To take another definition of conflict, Michael Nicholson in eir.zntu.edu.ua/bitstream/123456789/1777/1/M04177.pdf (2013) defines it as an activity which takes place when conscious beings (individuals or groups) wish to carry out mutually inconsistent acts concerning their wants, needs or obligations. Conflict is an escalation of a disagreement, which is its common prerequisite, and is characterized by the existence of conflict behavior, in which the beings are actively trying to damage one another. Rakhim lists some manifestations of conflict behavior, starting with disagreement, and followed by verbal abuse and interference. Conflicts can occur between individuals, groups and organizations.
Conflict in literature refers to the different drives of the characters or forces involved. Conflict may be internal or external—that is, it may occur within a character's mind or between a character and exterior forces, (or point(s) of view). Conflict is most visible between two or more characters, usually a protagonist and an antagonist/enemy/villain, but can occur in many different forms. A character may as easily find himself or herself in conflict with a natural force, such as an animal or a weather event, like a hurricane. The literary purpose of conflict is to create tension in the story, making readers more interested by leaving them uncertain which of the characters or forces will prevail.
3. Research Method
The approach used in this study is a qualitative approach. This type of research is a descriptive qualitative research. The method used in this research is descriptive method. According to Sudaryanto , descriptive method is a method of research conducted solely on the basis of existing linguistic facts or phenomena that empirically live on speakers. In descriptive method, the data already obtained will be written into the form of words or description. Researchers perform data analysis by giving exposure and description of the situation under study into the form of description. This study also uses a qualitative approach. A qualitative approach is an approach that focuses on the appointment of meanings, descriptions, and data.
Sources of data used in this study are grouped into two, namely primary data sources and secondary data sources. The primary data source in this study comes from the novel text of Surga Yang Tak Dirindukan by Asma Nadia. While secondary data source is source of data used to support work analysis. Secondary data source in this research are supporting articles, either from internet or from various other sources and other researches which are in line with this research.
Arini regrets the Physical Shift that happens to her. After going through the household with Pras for over ten years, there have been various physical changes which Arini has just realized.
She was no longer the same Arini, whom Pras encountered on the steps of Al-Ghifari Mosque. Her face looked dull, with fine wrinkles around her eyes, forehead, and curves of a smile. The once slender body, now looks much larger and unbalanced. Fat folds accumulate here and there. Not one of the reflections in the mirror if Arini was increasingly panic. Was this why she lost Pras? Really because Arini had become fat and not attractive women until Pras felt the need to find an alternative. (Nadia, 2014: 109)
Arini's psychological conflict begins when she feels a change in her her husband especially when her husband turns away from her and does polygamy with another woman. Arini also often experiences psychological conflicts caused by thought and regret.
When she learned that Pras was with another woman, as a woman, Arini felt very sad and collapsed but Arini did not want to show her grief in front of her children. The woman replaced the receiver while it was still in her hand. It is difficult to describe how the world suddenly collapsed, by one voice (Nadia, 2014: 4).
Arini felt her heart burning, even though the breeze from the open bedroom window, as well as the pool at the back of the house occasionally brought her cool air; still, it seemed that no one could cool her heart right now (Nadia, 2014: 41).
Arini wiped the tears that slid quickly across the cheeks. Ah, what a great scar that could be scratched by time. The fact immediately embraced Arini. Not to mention 24 hours, but her heart seemed to have been rusted by a chronic wound (Nadia, 2014: 62).
Based on these quotations, it is clearly illustrated Arini's inner struggle at the time of the slump to know the choice of her husband. Arini's psychological condition also changes from her original character. That happens beause of the internal conflict.
Arini tries to calm herself but the more she tries, the more irritated thoughts come to her. She loves her husband but that love is not enough to calm herself from being jealous towards her husband. She knows her condition and logically she could accept her husband having another woman but her jealousy exceeds her logical thinking.
Her heart is burning when imagining that her husband is being hugged by another woman. She could not accept that and she even could not compromise with herself. Mei Rose is now standing as her rival while in her condition she could not nothing; even physically she has become weak.
Arini conflict with Prasetya
Prasetya or Pras is the husband of Arini and Mei Rose. Prasetya is described as a perfect husband, both in the eyes of Arini and Mei Rose. The conflict between Arini and Prasetya is divided into two, namely the conflict when Arini knows Pras gets remarried (inner conflict) and Arini's conflict after meeting Pras. Arini's Inward Conflicts is when knowing Prasetya gets married again and this is a Direct Conflict between Arini and Prasetya.
Arini conflict with Mei Rose
Mei Rose is one of the main figures directly related to Arini. Mei Rose is the second wife of Arini's husband, Prasetya or Pras. Arini and Mei Rose conflicts are divided into two, namely the conflict when Arini has not met Mei Rose (inner conflict) and Arini's conflict after meeting May Rose.
According to Arini, Mei Rose is a very firm and calm person in dealing with her, unlike Arini who is not like that when faced with her second husband's wife. "Pras does not like being photographed." Arini is stunned. A little disturbed to hear that sentence. She has lived with Pras much longer than this woman. Of course, she knows. And he always understands the meaning of a family for Arini.
"And I never forced Pras to do anything unless he wanted." Arini understood. The challenge has just been announced. The battlefield has been set up and they are now drawing weapons (Nadia, 2014: 277-278).
In these quotations, a picture of the conflict between Arini and May Rose begins. They both feel familiar with Pras and do not want to give in. Arini is inversely proportional to May Rose who has not been long enough with him.
But they both thought they knew Pras well. Then a thought came in Arini's mind about her and Mei Rose in the eyes of Pras, namely: They are both so different. How can Pras love both? (Nadia, 2014: 278).
From the quote it appears that Arini begins to realize that between her and Mei Rose are two people who are so different from their own advantages and hard to choose one of them in the eyes of Pras. The conflict between Arini and Mei Rose then peaks as May Rose speaks openly with Arini to share Pras with her. As in the following quotation. "You've always had everything, Arini; parents, good husbands, healthy children, authorship careers. Everything. "He can see the embers in his friend's eyes. May Rose finally decides to stop hiding feelings. Arini tries to follow the direction of the conversation in vain. Somehow her mind feels compressed.
"While the only good thing that ever happened in my entire life was just Pras!"
Mei Rose's eyes flashed, her gaze made her body shrink. "With so much happiness, should not you be grateful and be a little generous?" Arini was trapped in a dead end. Mei Rose's words just glide like thousands of darts that stick their pointed ends right in their most sensitive parts of the body (Nadia, 2014: 287).
From the quote, it appears Arini starts to realize that she has been cornered and she cannot do anything to confront the assertiveness of May Rose who clearly asks her to share Pras. Mei Rose views Arini as a perfect person and experiences much happiness in life, in contrast to her who has only Pras as husband.
The conflict between Arini and Mei Rose finally ended with an indirect settlement of Arini depicted in the following quotation. Perhaps the tale of a woman must die, so that other women's tales get a life (Nadia, 2014: 286).
Indirectly, through these quotations Arini implies a conclusion that she is willing to turn off her fairy tale to make sure another woman's tales can live. Fairy tale here can be interpreted as a household life that has been run by Arini along with Pras. Arini seems to realize that between her and May Rose no one would budge to release Pras, so she is finally the one who chooses to give in from May Rose.
Based on the analysis of the form of protagonist's conflict, it can be revealed that the form of protagonist's conflict can be divided into two forms, namely internal conflict and external conflict. The form of the internal conflict includes (1) the figure of Arini who regrets the physical changes that occur in her, (2) the figure of Arini who slumps when she knows that she has been made into a polygamy. and (3) Arini figure rises from the downfall due to polygamy, while the form of external conflict includes the stout figure of Arini when making the final decision regarding her household.
Based on the results of the conflict analysis of the protagonist's conflict with other figures, the results show that Arini has also conflict with other central figures, namely Prasetya (Arini's husband) and Mei Rose (the second wife).
Arini's conflict with Prasetya is classified into two types, namely the conflict when Arini knows Pras marry again (internal conflict) and Arini's conflict after meeting Pras (external conflict). While the conflict between Arini and Mei Rose is also divided into two kinds, namely the conflict before Arini meets Mei Rose (internal conflict) and Arini's conflict after meeting May Rose (external conflict).