Reading is something crucial and indispensable for the students because the success of their study depends on the greater part of their ability to read. If their reading skill is poor they are very likely to fail in their study or at least they will have difficulty in making progress. On the other hand, if they have a good ability in reading, they will have a better chance to succeed in their study. Reading is a complex ability. Reading is not the activity at the symbols of written simply. The various capabilities are developed by a reader, so he will be able to understand the reading material. Reading activities are also an activity that is active speaking receptive . For students, reading is not only a role in the subject learned. But reading is also a role in knowing the various kinds of advances in science and technology continue to grow. Through reading, advancement of science and technology can be known and understood before it can be applied. By reading, the students will get much information from the text which they read. From those texts, they provide new story and experience for the students especially in narrative text. By reading narrative text, it provides the students by entertaining and telling with a true experience or an imaginary one.
Based on the researcher's observation, the students' report mark and the interview with the English teacher, there were some difficulties faced by the students of the VIII A class of SMP Tarbiyah Islamiyah Hamparan Perak in learning narrative text. The students had lack of vocabulary, they did not know the meaning of the sentences, they were unable to find and remember the sentences which contained important information. They also could not answer the exercises given. Besides that, the teacher always used the same method of teaching. This condition made them feel bored, and as the result most of them had the score under the criteria of minimum completeness (KKM).
Therefore, based on the description above, the researcher was interested in solving the problems by implementing Theme Based Teaching approach on students' achievement in narrative text.
2. The Formulation of the Problem
The formulations of the problems were given as follows:
3. The Objective of the Research
Based on the research problem, the objectives of the research were given as follows:
4. The Significance of the Study
5. Literature Review
Theme-based teaching approach
One of the subjects that is becoming an issue to deal with the new approach in Curriculum 2013 is by creating learning activities through Theme-Based Teaching. It means that, the process of teaching and learning is presented based on the themes that will be expanded to other subjects. Some experts describe Theme-Based as an approach to language teaching in which the whole course is structured around certain themes or topics (Brinton at al., 2001 as cited in Yang, 2009). Theme-Based teaching (also termed theme – based instruction or topic-based teaching) is one of the approaches with the broader model of content-based instruction (CBI) in which the emphasis is on exposing students to a “highly contextualized” second language environment by using the subject matter as the content of language learning . In a theme-based course, different teaching activities are integrated by their content, the teaching of different skills areas is incorporated into the theme , and “the theme or topic acts as a connecting thread” . The rationale for this thematic approach to “avoid fragmentation and unconnected skill exercises” and a variety of activities are integrated around meaningful content . It provides learners with motivating and meaningful uses of the language . Other important advantages of Theme – Based Teaching for language learning as suggested by Cameron (2001) include the fact that new vocabulary items can be learned easily, with the theme providing a meaningful context for understanding, and for the natural use of a wide range of discourse types, both written and spoken.
Using a theme study approach
Theme Based units are a vehicle for teaching a range of skills and content by integrating curriculum areas around a topic . This method of teaching links curriculum strands and capitalizes on children's interests, creating a sense of purpose and community in the classroom. By building on their interests and life experiences, young people's attitudes, skills and knowledge are developed in meaningful ways. Inquiry and communication are activated by a desire to know more, resulting in enthusiastic participation in the learning process. The teacher's role is not diminished but changed. The role of the teacher becomes one of coordinator or facilitator, who maintains a sense of the whole picture and a vision of the skills the students need to acquire through classroom activities.
Many teachers plan their classroom programs around themes, integrating curriculum areas into a single unit of study. These units vary in length depending on their sources available and whether or not the study is extended by the students' enthusiasm and interest. The theme may be chosen by the teacher or in collaboration with the students. There are advantages when theme studies are developed by teachers and students together. The students bring innovative ideas, resources and strategies and become committed to the learning process that is driven by their own interests.
Narrative text is one of English text types in studying reading or writing. Narrative text is a text that tells a story to entertain the readers and the listeners. However, narrative can be written to teach or inform, to change attitude or social opinions and to show the moral of a story . There are five generic structures in constructing a narrative text: orientation; introducing the characters of the story, time and place the story happened, complication; a series of events in which the main character attempts to solve the problem, resolution; the ending of the story which contains the solution.
6. Research Method
This research would be conducted by using Classroom Action Research. It was aimed to improve students' learning and outcomes of teaching learning process. The subject was the VIII grade students of SMP Tarbiyah Islamiyah Hamparan Perak of the academic year 2016/2017. In this research the problem of the research subject was identified, something was done to resolve the problem, then it was seen how successful their efforts, and if it was not satisfied, the researcher would try back. Therefore, action research was needed to use cycle. Every cycle consisted of four steps; namely planning, action, observation, and reflection and in each cycle consisted of two meetings (cycle I and II consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection). Cycle II was done if the mean score of the first cycle was not satisfying. This cycle was needed if the previous mean score did not fulfill the criteria of minimum completeness (KKM). The II cycle consisted of the same four phases like in cycle I, but there was the improvement in doing the action based on the weakness found in the cycle I. In this research, the researcher applied qualitative and quantitative data, in qualitative data, it was analyzed from the observation sheet and the interview sheet to describe the implementation of Theme Based Teaching Approach in reading narrative text. The researcher applied quantitative data which meant that the data were taken from the students reading narrative text. The score was used to analyze the improvement of the students' skill. To know the mean of the students' score of each cycle, Arikunto's formula (2006) was used:
X = class mean score
x = total score
N = the total number of student
To categorize the number of the master students, the researcher calculated it by using this formula:
P = percentage of students getting score 75
R = number of students getting score 75
T = the total number of students taking the test
The category of scoring:
90% - 100% = Very Good 65% - 79% = Enough 0% - 54 = Bad
80% - 89% = Good 55% - 64% = Less
This research was conducted in one class which consisted of 40 students during the cycles of Class Action Research. It was accomplished in two cycles. Each cycle was conducted in two meetings. Before conducting Post test in the first cycle, the researcher did Pre-test to measure the students' achievement in reading narrative text. The researcher gave multiple choice test which consisted of 20 questions in each test. The data of students' score in Pre-test, Post-test I, and Post-test II could be seen as below:
|Names of Test||Test I (Pre-test)||Test II (Post-test I)||Test III (Post-test II)|
The data of students who passed the criteria of minimum completeness (KKM):
The form of the research result involved qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data was taken from the observation sheet, the interview, and the diary note. The quantitative data was taken from students' score in the multiple choice test. In the observation, the focus was placed on the situation of the teaching learning process in which Theme Based Teaching was applied. The Interview was conducted to get information about students' interest in reading. In the diary note, the researcher noted in the I meeting in cycle I, the students had less interest in learning reading. The students' achievement in reading narrative was low in the class (50.5), with the lowest score 25 dan the highest score was 70. From the I test, it was found that no students could get score 75 or above. It meant that they felt difficult to understand the text but in the II meeting, by applying Theme Based Teaching, all students could understand what they were studying. After giving the explanation about narrative text, they were given the task to be discussed in the group. They worked cooperatively but some of the students did not pay any attention. Based on the reflection in the I cycle, it was found that the II cycle had to be conducted. In the cycle II (Post-test I) their score was 69.25, 22 students got score up to 75 points, with the lowest score 50 and the highest score was 80. The researcher gave motivation and review about implementing Theme Based Teaching Approach. The students listened seriously and asked some questions. Their score was improved 80.87 in Post-test II. All students got points up to 75 with the lowest score was 75 and the highest score was 95. The percentage of the students' score also added from test to test (0%, 55%, and 100%). In the last meeting, the students were motivated, felt more enjoyable and interested in learning reading by implementing Theme Based Teaching. The students' score had been improved and all of them passed the criteria of minimum completeness (KKM). The improvement could be seen below:
|Name of test||Test I (Pre-test)||Test II (Cycle I)||Test III (Cycle II)|
The different score between Pre-test, Cycle I, and Cycle II could be seen in the chart as follow:
The conclusion of this research showed that there was the improvement of students' achievement in reading narrative text through Theme Based Teaching Approach to the VIII grade students of SMP Tarbiyah Islamiyah Hamparan Perak. In the Pre-test, the mean of students' score was 50, the Post-test I was 69.25 and the Post-test II was 80.87. The Observation sheets and the interview sheets indicated that there was improvement in students' achievement in reading narrative text by using Theme Based Teaching Approach, learning teaching process was more relevant, and enhanced the students' ability to transfer the competencies and skills acquired in one context to other appropriate situations.