KnE Social Sciences | The 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature (AICLL) | pages: 287–294


1. Introduction

In a sense, moral is the study of what thought to be right and what is generally done by a group, society, or culture. In general, moral corresponds to what actually is done in a society. However, right or wrong is relative to be done. It means that moral is studied as psychology, sociology, or anthropology, so each society has different moral codes. The people view moral, values, beliefs, generally influenced by the way of life of their society (Nurgiyantoro 2010: 321). Morals in literary works usually reflect truth values according to the author's view, and that is what it is delivered to the reader. As for Kenny (in Nurgiyantoro, 2015: 430) states that morality in the story is intended as a suggestion relating to certain practical moral teachings, and taken or interpreted through the story concerned by the reader. In addition, moral of the story is a "clue" that the author deliberately delivers about various things related to life issues, such as attitude, behavior, and sociable manners.

Jane Eyre is a novel published in 1847 by a feminist author Charlotte Bronte. This novel tells about a woman's struggle, love and gender relations in 1800's, when Charlotte Bronte grew up. Charlotte had to face hard times when she wanted to publish the novel; she sent the script with the fictitious names, Currer Bell, in order to conceal her true identity as a woman. In 1800's woman had limitation to work even as a writer. Her sister, Emily and Anne Bronte who were also a writers did the same. They were writers known as Bronte's sisters. The background of this story is in Victorian era where woman set up by traditional that they must depend on man.

This research provides an analysis about moral values in Charlotte Bronte's novel Jane Eyre. The word `moral' is generally defined as message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event. The moral may be left to the hearer, reader, or viewer to determine for themselves, or may be explicitly encapsulated in a maxim. A moral is a lesson in a story or in real life in the story of the novel. That is why the focus of the analysis is the main character's moral values shared by Jane Eyre and Rochester.

2. Literature Riview

Moral is from the Latin word mos and the plurals is mores meaning custom or ways of life. Discussions about morals usually refer to ethics and ethics and morals are the same meaning, but in the daily life there are some differences. Morals or morality are used to measure values of happening, while ethics to study value system well done.

According to Hurlock (1977), moral is an ethical norm, a concept of life upheld by most certain societies. Moral is primarily concerned with the understanding of good and bad. Goodness is regarded as moral, while the badness is considered as immoral behavior. Barcalow (1994) says that moral can be evaluated with the actions and potential actions of others, and may be evaluated as good or bad; right or wrong; and acceptable or unacceptable; required, prohibited, or permitted; praiseworthy or blameworthy.

In relation to the values, morals are part of the value, namely moral values. Not all of the values are moral values. Moral values are related with human behavior about goodness and badness. It is a kind of doctrine accepted by society regarding the actions, attitudes, obligations, morals, manners, and decency [3]. Understanding certain good and bad things is relative. This means that something which is in general considered good for someone or a nation may not be good for the other people or other nations. Someone's opinion about morals and values are usually influenced by the view of life.

Furthermore, moral values are the values which are associated with customs, manners, and behavior [20]. The word `moral' always refers to the good or the bad people as people, so that fields of human life are seen in terms of kindness as human (Margis in Budiningsih, 2004). Overall, the moral teachings are norms and understandings determining the things which are considered good and bad.

Darajat (1977: 8) in the Hurlock's book Child Development conclude that moral is: (1) Behavior which conforms to social standards and which is also carried out voluntarily by the individual; (2) responsibility toward their action; and Consideration to the welfare of the group, while personal desires or gains are relegated to opposition of secondary importance.

Based on description above, the researcher states that morality is the measurement used to determine what is right or wrong of human beings' attitudes and actions in terms of the goodness and badness.

Children learn about what is right and wrong, good or bad from their parents and other members of the family. They learn everything they need such as learning how to eat something in a good manner, how to speak, how to act etc. and when they grow up they will have interacting with others who are not usually a member of the family like neighbors and societies. Children must be able to conform with them and able to adapt with environment where they live. Children need socialization in order to know how they should act in the middle of societies and cultural environments.

Moral values are beliefs and values of people that conform to normal standards of what is right and wrong and deals with people. The standard moral values are different between one society and others. The different standard of morals and ethics is on the basis of determining standards measure that is right and wrong and based on customs or agreement of the society. If the society regards that some behaviors are good so it is also good for their values. Finally, the characteristic standards of morals and ethics are local and temporal. A moral value is the principle of rightness and wrongness that are accepted by an individual and social group. Morals arise from human consciousness to develop personal self and society, developing a means to correct errors and improve what has been good. Morals are the foundation of human life as the regulatory toward the perfection of life. Moral values arise from the human conscience, which will determine behavior

3. Research Method

The researcher used descriptive qualitative methods. Sugiyono (2017: 14) states that qualitative research is data in the form of words, schemes, and images. The type of research used is descriptive qualitative using content analysis. This research is literature research. Data source in this research is a written document of literary result in the novel of Jane Eyre. This study aims to find and describe the form of moral values, the moral of the main character in the face of life issues and the delivery of moral values in the novel. All phenomena are obtained from the units that indicate its relevance to the objectives to be achieved and automatically recorded as data research.

4. Discussion

Positive attitude usually gets a good reaction from others. According to Hurlock (1997: 323-324) the type of moral teaching itself can include problems, to be said, to be infinite. It can encompass the whole issue of life, all issues concerning human dignity and prestige. Broadly speaking the problem of life and human life can be distinguished into the problems of human relationships with oneself, human relationships with other human beings in the social sphere including its relationship with the natural environment, and human relationships with God.

According to description above, the writer makes points on the kinds of moral values.

  • Individual Moral is the attitude of the human to him/herself, meaning that humans have the right to make their decisions and spirit to do something or actions.

  • Social Moral is the attitude of the humans to others. The personal freedom is limited to the social freedom so, the relationships between personal and social is very close because when a person takes actions usually followed by the reactions from the others. Finally, people should respect each other.

  • Religion Moral is the attitude of the human to God by daily activities, meaning that all the activity is connected with the worship to God.

Patience

Patience is the personal ability to accept annoying behavior or difficulties without becoming angry and complaining [12]. Patience is one of the important indicators of health of soul.

It is far better to endure patiently than to commit a hasty action whose evil consequences will extend to all connected with the person concerned. [6]

From the quotation above, he always has creative thinking to get solutions of his problems. He always trusts himself, he is able to change to suit new conditions or situations as he is all the time patient.

Sincerity

Rochester is sort of like the Beast half of a "Beauty and the Beast" story. (Forget for a minute that Jane's no beauty.) He's even got a sort of shaggy mane of hair that makes him look beast-ish, and at the end of the novel, when he's locked himself away at Ferndean to wallow in his own self-pity, he's described as "some wronged and fettered wild beast or bird, dangerous to approach in his sullen woe" [6]

Through her sincerity, Jane could tame Rochester, who formerly appears so rough, in beastly manner at times. Jane is confident that her sincerity could win all the cases including all her problems with Rochester. Basically Rochester is a good man, only due to some inconvenient circumstances; he is changed but not totally. Rochester at first all the time is sullen but through her kindness and sincerity all begins to change.

Meantime, Mr. Rochester affirmed I was wearing him to skin and bone, and threatened awful vengeance for my present conduct at some period fast coming. I laughed in my sleeve at his menaces. "I can keep you in reasonable check now," I reflected; "and I don't doubt to be able to do it hereafter: if one expedient loses its virtue, another must be devised. Yet after all my task was not an easy one; often I would rather have pleased than teased him. (2.9.171-172)

Again it is seen that Jane has been successful to tame Rochester. Rochester initially says various rough words to Jane, accusing her of something illogical but again through her simplicity and sincerity, Jane could make Rochester understand the real problem and the real situation to be faced.

Rponsibility

The health of humans' soul is showed in their actions. When our soul and our body are healthy we can do anything and when we have done with ourselves we can do things to others people. One of the important characters of harmonious personality is responsible for many kinds of responsibility such as responsible for our duties, families, jobs, clients, friends, neighborhoods and person who have relations with us as personality and general society.

If people were always kind and obedient to those who are cruel and unjust, the wicked people would have it all their own way: they would never feel afraid, and so they would never alter, but would grow worse and worse. When we are struck at without a reason, we should strike back again very hard; I am sure we should—so hard as to teach the person who struck us never to do it again. [...] I must dislike those who, whatever I do to please them, persist in disliking me; I must resist those who punish me unjustly. It is as natural as that I should love those who show me affection, or submit to punishment when I feel it is deserved." (1.6.50, 52)

From quotation above, here Jane is responding to Helen Burns, who argues that they should "return good for evil," "turn the other cheek," "love your enemies," and all that sort of good Christian forgiveness stuff.

"It is not its cure. Reformation may be its cure; and I could reform—I have strength yet for that—if—but where is the use of thinking of it, hampered, burdened, cursed as I am? Besides, since happiness is irrevocably denied me, I have a right to get pleasure out of life: and I will get it, cost what it may." (1.14.63-65)

From the quotation above, the difference between "repentance" and "reform" is important here. Jane thinks it's enough to repent —to feel bad for what you've done. Rochester thinks that's not enough and that you actually need to reform—to actively change your ways. We will be watching through the rest of the novel to figure out which of them the text supports.

Through the above quotations, all is clear that Jane has shown great responsibility upon all the problems happened, either to herself individually or to other around her.

5. Conclusion

In the Jane Eyre, there are moral values conveyed by author where the most dominant is the values that are being conveyed explicitly, can be easily seen by the readers. Based on the analysis, the results reveal that there are moral values in the Jane Eyre written by Charlotte Bronte which are presented through the actions and statements of characters as well as the depiction of the atmosphere in the novel. These moral values are about the issues of human relationships with themselves (individuality), the relationship of humans with other (society), and the human relationship with God (god). The issues of human relationships with themselves are honesty, humility, sincerity, patience, responsibility, yearning, tenacity, self-control, bravery, regret, hard work, fear, hatred, hypocrisy and grudge. Next is the relationship of humans with other humans are friendship, kinship, loyalty, superior and subordinate, harmony and mutual help. Finally, the human relationship with God are obedience, have positive thought, gratitude and repentance.

Moral values presented in the Jane Eyre Troops can be used as a guide to live a life meaningfully. This novel describes how we establish a good relationship with ourselves, fellow humans, and God. Living their lives, people deal with their own conscience so that the author delivers that tenacity is something to be realized and implemented in every occasion. People are also social creatures where they cannot possibly dwell in a place without the existence of others. The author, in this respect strengthens the point of friendship to be kept well in society. Furthermore, people are dependent on God. The author emphasizes the point of obedience as it is mostly portrayed in the characters activities when performing prayer on time. This fact is unsurprisingly in harmony with Islamic principles that is being upheld by our university. The values found in the lives of the characters teach us to be better human beings.

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