Literature is an art form, like painting, sculpture, music, drama, and the dance. Literature is distinguished from other arts form by the medium in which it works; language (David, 1971: 139). Literature is the art of written or it can adopt that literature is referred to as the entirety of written expression, but not every written document.
According to Semi, literature is a form of creative art and the work that the object is a human and his life by using language as a medium (Lerner, 2008). Literature as a creative art using humans and all sorts of aspects of life can be used as a medium to convey an idea, a theory, or a system of human thought.
Literature includes both written and spoken material. On a broader level, `Literature' includes anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but most commonly the term refers to works of the creative imagination, i.e. poetry, drama, prose and novel. Literature is almost similar to art, what is true in painting is true in literature. `A novel is not an imitation or an exact copy of life as we live it; it is rather a selection of characters and events drawn from reading, observation, and experience, and woven into an entirely new story.' (Arnold, 2003: 20)
Literature is almost similar to art, what is true in painting is true in literature. Novel as a one of literary work plays an important role in giving a view to addressing the life artistically. Novel development in Indonesia is quite fast. It is evidenced by the many new novels published. Which one the novel Perempuan Berkalung Sorban by Abidah El Khalieqy (2009).
In this research, the researcher wanted to describe the topic “Feminismin Bidah El Khalieqy's Novel Perempuan Berkalung Sorban”. The researcher feels the topic is the most interested because men and women have the same obligations to the functioning of all the potentials as human being public life.
In Perempuan Berkalung Sorban novel by Abidah El Khalieqy form of rebellion and repression in which the main character by Annisa. Based on these descriptions, the researcher wants to know how feminism in Perempuan Berkalung Sorban novel by Abidah El Khalieqy.
2. Literature Review
Feminism is an ideology of women's liberation because that is inherent in all of its approach is the belief that woman suffer injustice because of their gender (Humm, 2002). In a patriarchal society, women are included in the home camp is limited to the environment and life in the home, while men are included in the general camp that includes environmental and life outside the home (Djajanegara, 2003: 30).
According to Rose (2003), the feminism view of the differences in gender role of men and women in general can be categorized into two groups namely liberal feminism and radical feminism. Liberal feminism works within the structure of mainstream society to integrate women into it and make it more responsive to individual women's rights, but does not directly challenge the system itself or the ideology behind women's oppression. The suffragist movement is an example. Liberal feminism is an individualistic formof feminist theory, which focuses on women's ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices. On the other hand, radical feminism views patriarchy and sexism as the most elemental factor in women's oppression – cutting across all others from race and age to culture, caste and class. It questions the very system and ideology behind women's subjugation. The term often refers to the women's movements emerging from the civil rights, peace and other liberation movements at a time when people increasingly were questioning different forms of oppression and power. Radical feminists, seeking to understand the roots of women's subordination, have provided the major theoretical understanding that has served as the basis for the inspiration and analysis guiding women's movements around the world.
According to this group, women should not be dependent on men, not only in term of material fulfillment but also in sexual fulfillment. Women can feel the warmth, intimacy, and sexual satisfaction from other women. Sexual satisfaction of men is psychological issue. This theory is also seeking rational justification movement by revealing the fact that men are problems for women.
3. Research Method
Research design is a procedural plan that is adopted by the researcher to answer questions validly, objectively, accurately and economically (Kumar, 2011). The research design used to analyze Perempuan Berkalung Sorban novel by Abidah El Khalieqy was descriptive qualitative research.
According to Lambert (2009), “Qualitative descriptive studies are the least “theoretical” of all of the qualitative approaches to research. In addition, qualitative descriptive studies are the least encumbered studies, compared to other qualitative approaches, by a pre-existing theoretical or philosophical commitment.”
In this research the data were collected in the form of notes. The main data of this research was novel of Perempuan Berkalung Sorban it self. Then, the secondary data were taken from sources, such as paper, article, journal, and website related with the subject of this research. The analysis of the data by using the steps were collection and classification of data and making conclusions.
Based on the theory and related findings, the researcher discusses Perempuan Berkalung Sorban narrating about the struggle of a woman named Annisa regarding the allignment of a woman with men in the field of education in her family. From this novel, she fights against the loss of the women's rights in her family and among members of society. She struggles for the rights of women by complaining towards the family and religion personage. Annisa's struggle on defending the possession of the body and women's generative rights are based on her assumption of her life exploration. The discussion is tied to liberal and radical feminism.
Liberal feminism in the novel is also reflected by the first character of the novel, Annisa who feels unfair treatment she receives from her family. She feels suffered due to the unfair treatment. In fact, it happens since Annisa's point of view is on the contrary from her family's. Annisa's point of view is based on her outdoor environment, that is the boarding school where she has lived.
Liberal feminism that upsets Annisa can be seen in the following quotations:
"Ow...ow...ow...Oh, I see. Has mom not told you that riding a horse is only worth studied by your brohers, Rizal or Wildan. You know why? Because you are a girl, Nisa. Inappropriate, the girl riding a horse, a lot of behavior! surrounding fields and down to the pond. Embarrassing! ”(El Khalieqy, 2009)
“Hi Nisa, lazy people don't need to envy. Furthermore, you are woman, Nisa. Women have a responsibility to take care of the household. It is good for the future day, Nisa.”(El Khalieqy, 2009). "But the girls do not need to study till high school. It is enough, if it had been reading and khatam Qur'an. They have coupled yellow holly book's. ” (El Khalieqy, 2009)
The quotations shows liberal feminism that upsets Annisa, to receive treatment from her family that is not the same with her elder brothers because she is a woman, and so she is always made different among the members of the family. The central tenet of radical feminism is that women as a biological class are globally oppressed by men as a biological class. We believe that male power is constructed and maintained through institutional and cultural practices that aim to bolster male superiority through the reinforcement of female inferiority.
This is so because Annisa's family is in line with terms of the rules of Islam which says that the level of a woman is under the man. In addition, there is also restriction given to her in obtaining education. Many people in the world are still deprived of education. The world is improving, the living standard of people is getting better, but some countries are still much behind in this race of progress. There are still many countries that do not let women the right to education.
Actually, the family does not realize that the restriction on education given to Anitsa is a great loss both to her family as well as to society. Better educated women tend to be healthier, participate more in the formal labor market, earn higher incomes, have fewer children, marry at a later age, and enable better health care and education for their children, should they choose to become mothers. All these factors combined can help lift households, communities, and nations out of poverty.
The next point to be discussed is concerned with radical feminism that upsets Annisa. The rights of the household's justice relating to polygamy done by Samsuddin give a great misery to Anisa. instead give suffering impact to Annisa. People who practice polygamy should get justice between one wife with the other. In this case, Annisa does not get justice, but suffering either physically and mentally.
The radical feminism can be seen in the following quotations:
“In these situation Samsudin getting into, then bite his shoulder and neck such as vampire. Even he satisfy select which parts of my body to the grip. Clawed paws at will, as if I sacrifice a goat that was in the hands of a merchant.” (El Khalieqy, 2009)
“He drew his fangs from my body, like a hungry tiger face to face with their prey middle. Then growl and pressing a pillow over my face, while spitting despicable oaths and curses with a very rude word. After slapping, choking and grabbed my hair with full inhumanity. After seeing my strength helplessly limps.” (El Khalieqy, 2009)
“After I thinking, I also speak on Samsudin. So he split the shopping money evenly as Sunnah polygamy. He will show justice at a time.” (El Khalieqy, 2009)
“And it is time. I just got home from school when I found two different creature types it was fucking above the crimson carpet.” (El Khalieqy, 2009)
“Look, Annisa, how to play in the paradise. Look at us! How do you play on the paradise? And you can join us, if you want.” (El Khalieqy, 2009)
The above quotations how radical feminism is implemented in Anisa's life. Annisa feels miserable due to the crises in her household, that are mainly due to her husband. She suffers not only physically but also mentally. Anisa suffers from Intimate partner violence referring to her husband's behaviour. Such violence is always done by an intimate partner or ex-partner that causes physical, sexual or psychological harm, including physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviours.
Violence against women and girls is a grave violation of human rights. Its impact ranges from immediate to long-term multiple physical, sexual and mental consequences for women and girls, including death. It negatively affects women's general well-being and prevents women from fully participating in society. Violence not only has negative consequences for women but also their families, the community and the country at large. It has tremendous costs, from greater health care and legal expenses and losses in productivity, impacting national budgets and overall development. And all of these illustrations are experienced by Anisa.
In such a society as where Anisa is in, conservative and liberal men will often disagree in public about the conditions under which they can rightly claim ownership. Conservative men argue for control of women within the heterosexual family. Liberal men argue for more expansive access to women. In public, the policy debates about reproductive rights and sexual access rage on. In private, conservative and liberal men claim their “right” to do as they please, which is why women sometimes find it difficult to tell conservative and liberal men apart when it comes to behavior. Patriarchy also is not immune to challenge. Feminism makes gains, patriarchy pushes back, and the struggle continues. Women advance in business, politics, and education, and men assert their control over women's bodies where they can get away with it.
It can be concluded that the novel entitled Perempuan Berkalung Sorban describes the struggle of a woman by the name of Annisa in getting her existances and rights as an independent woman. Perempuan Berkalung Sorban contains two kinds of feminism, liberal feminism and radical feminism.
Finally the analysis exposes that the core belief of feminism is that men and women should be treated as equal, in all regards. No matter what one believes, they cannot deny that in society women tend to have less rights and powers than men. In some countries, women still don't have the right to vote or right to drive for that matter. Whereas in others, even developed countries, women do not have equal representation in government or even equal pay.