Personality is defined as the set of habitual behaviors, cognitions and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factory. Everybody has personality which can be different or similar but there are very rare of them that we can find has similar personality. Personality can be seen easily from someone's manner or behavior. We do not have to learn about psychology if we just want to know whether somebody that we know happy or not. We might not know their truly feeling but we can expect it from the way they look. For example, when we talk to our friend about something funny and then she or he laughs, it shows that they are happy.
Personality types are sometimes distinguished from personality traits, with the letter embodying a smaller grouping of behavioral tendencies. Types are sometimes said to involve qualitative differences between people, whereas traits might be construed as quantitative differences. But in this research, types and traits are seen in the same way.
This research analyzed the personality traits in Frederick Backman's Novel A Man Called Ove. Novel is a long narrative work which has more than 50.000 words and published as a book. Many novels created by novelists in around the world, they can be fiction, love story, history or autobiography story etc. One of the example of novel is A Man Called Ove by Frederick Backman. It is a novel which is published in Sweden and the original title is En Man Som Heter Ove. And this novel also has been adapted as a film of the same name which premiered on 25 December 2015.
This novel, overall, is a comedy novel where the author described the personalities of the main character of the novel that is Ove as a grumpy old man who always blabber over anything. He is a curmudgeon, the kind of man who pointsat people he dislikes as if they were burglars caught outside his bedroom window. He has stauch principles, strict routines, and a short fuse. People call him “the bitter neighbour from hell”. But not only comedy story, there are also sad moment that is showed by Ove.
2. Literature Review
There are some theories of personality defined by some experts such as: Personality is the coherent pattern of affect, cognition, and desires (goals) as they lead to behavior Revelle (2013). Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thoughts. (Allport, 1961: 28)
Carl G. Jung states that classification does not explain the individual psyche. Nevertheless, an understanding of psychological type opens the way to a better understanding of huma psychology in general, Sharp (1937: 7)
According to Carl G. Jung's theory of psychological types, people can be characterized by their preference of general attitude:
Extravert or extraversion
Extraversion is normally characterized by an outgoing, candid, and accommodating nature that adapts easily to given situation, quickly forms attachments, and setting asie any possible misgiving, will often venture forth with careless confidence into unknown situation. Sharp (1937: 13)
The extravert type is characterized by the following traits:
• Their interests focus on the external reality, instead of their internal world.
• They make decisions by thinking about their effect on the external reality, instead of on their own existence.
• Their actions are carried out according to what others might think about them.
• Their ethics and morals are built depending on what prevails in the world.
• They are people that can fit into almost any environment, but have a hard time truly adapting.
• They are suggestible, easily influenced and tend to imitate others.
• They need to be seen and acknowledged by others.
Introvert or introversion
Introversion is normally characterized by a hesitant, reflective, retiring nature that keeps itself to itself, shrinks from objects and is always slightly on the defensive. Sharp (1937: 13)
On the other hand, the introvert type has the following traits:
• They are interested in themselves, their feelings and thoughts.
• They orient their behavior according to what they feel and think, though it may go against the external reality.
• They do not worry too much about the effect their actions might have on their surroundings. They worry about everything that satisfies them internally.
• They struggle to fit into and adapt to their environment. However, if they manage to adapt, they will do so in a creative and complete way.
Extraverts like to travel, meet new people, see new places. They are the typical adventurers, the life of the party, open and friendly. The introvert is essentially conservative, preferring the familiar surroundings of home, intimate times with a few close friends.
3. Research Method
Research designs are plans and the procedures for research that span the decisions from broad assumptions to detail methods of data collection and analysis (Creswell, 2009: 3). However the selection of a research design is actually based on the nature of the research problem or issue being addressed.
This research follows qualitative method of research for it involves the characteristics of qualitative procedure of analysis. This research explores and understands the social or human problem. The researcher makes interpretations of the meaning of the data. Data collection and analysis follow the procedures are under researcher's role as the key instrument.
The data which are obtained from the novel are analyzed in chapter four of this study. The analysis is conducted by classifying the obtained data into two subchapters related to the research problems of this study. The first subchapter displayed the metaphorical expression found in the novel. Then, the second subchapter related to the type of the metaphorical expression. The data analysis is the way to answer the two research problems in this study.
In this part of research, the data that have been obtained is analysed. There are some sentences that show the personalities of the protagonist or the main character in the novel.
From the table above, we can see that there are more Introvert personalities than the extrovert one. Based on the novel, there are only a few sentences that show the protagonist's extrovert personalities because he has it since he was child. All of the introvert personalities above are related to the characters of introvert given by Carl G. Jung. Ove shows almost all his stories about his introvert personalities. He even does not want to talk to his neighbors. He only thinks and cares about himself; he thinks that he does not need anybody else until he meets his wife who really accepts his personalities. He says that only she who sees him with color. It means that she accepts Ove with all of his personalities. But after she dies, he comes back to his original self.
The extrovert personalities of protagonist are very rare in this novel because from the beginning of the novel, Ove is told as the introvert man. We can find many sentences that show the extrovert personalities but it comes from other character.
After analyzing the data that have been obtained, the researcher finds out that there are a lot of sentences that show the protagonist possessing the introvert personalities. For the extrovert one, there are only a few sentences that show he possesses it. The protagonist only shows a lot of introvert personalities compared to extrovert personalities.
This research talks about the personally traits of a character in the novel. It focuses on two personalities that are Introvert and extrovert. The researcher decides to choose this topic because of there are so many people in this world who has their own personality and by doing this research, not only our personality but also the others, we can understand or find out about personality especially for extrovert and introvert. After finishing this research, the researcher increases the knowledge about personalities and hopes the readers also increase their knowledge about personality so that they can understand themselves of the other. And also by knowing this research, we also learn how to respect someone who has the similar personalities with the protagonist of this novel, Ove.