KnE Social Sciences | The First International Research Conference on Economics and Business (IRCEB) | pages: 482–490

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1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Business competition is rapidly changing todays. It requires organization's sensitivity in responding changes that will occur in the future. Many industries collapse and died, because of volatile and dynamic competition. Some of them are still alive and keep struggle, especially them who are in small and medium businesses (SMEs).

Not only has the high survival rate in business, SMEs have an important role in nations' economic growth, especially the nations' GDP. The data shows that economic growth of non-oil and gas industry, especially in restaurant and cafe sector contributed 8.02% of Indonesia's GDP growth rate (Indonesian Ministry of Industry and Trade, 2012). However, this business found to reluctant to scale up [9] and have lack of HR management [19].

Small industries such as restaurant and cafe also less concerned about human resource management (HRM). Thus, the study of human resource (HR) practices in the cafe and resto industries is rarely explored, especially in Indonesia (Juariyah, 2015: 415), although many literatures agree that human resource is essential element in business development and competition. HR is essential in business and play as key element of business success since HR is valuable for the company, it is rare and difficult to find in other places, its characteristic is un-imitable to copy, and it is hard to find comparable substitute skill, knowledge, and ability. Barney (1991) said that organization resources which has those characteristic (valuable, imperfectly imitate, rareness, difficult to find its substitution) is sources of company's competitive advantage or sustained competitive advantage. HR has those characteristics. Therefore, HR is one of the elements that determine the success of an organization to achieve its goals. (Suwatno, 2011: 110)

The HR in the organization includes all employees working in the organization. Employees who have the thought, mind, talent, creativity, and energy are needed as important assets to accomplish the tasks of the company and fulfill the mission and objectives of the organization. Employees who enjoy and love their work are usually able to enjoy and love their jobs, so they tend to feel job satisfaction.

Employee job satisfaction is a driver of work productivity. Perrin & Vidiastanto (2014) said that satisfied worker will work more productively and contribute to the company's goals and objectives. They found to be more discipline, have better work performance, and they have better work ethics (Fathoni, 2006: 65). All of these findings reflect that employees job satisfaction is positive emotional attitude of employees who proud and love their jobs.

Therefore, business manager should consider many aspects that support employees' job satisfaction, such as valuable job, responsibility, achievement, recognition, and advancement. Herzberg called these aspects as motivators or job satisfiers in his two-factor theory of motivation (Luthans, 2011: 165-166).

In his study on about 200 accountants and engineers, Herzberg found that employees notified good feelings that in general were associated with experiences and content of the job, such as the supervisor who felt good when he installed new computer equipment in the accounting department, because he knew the new equipment would make a big difference in the overall department functions. That is why this supervisor felt pride in his work and was grateful with his job.

On the other sides, employees reported feeling bad when his or her job is associated generally with peripheral aspects of the job (job context) and its sorrounding. For instance, an engineer who did record keeping and managing the office when the boss was gone. The engineer was frustrated, because his boss always busy to train him and became annoyed when he tried to ask questions. This engineer felt like a flunky in a dead-end job because the way his boss supervised him. Herzberg labelled this as job dissatisfiers.

Another example of job dissatisfiers is working condition, company policy and administration, salary, interpersonal relations, and supervisor. Herzberg named these dissatisfiers as hygiene factors. The term hygiene refers to factor that are preventive. These factors prevent dissatisfaction in work.

From this theory point of view, it can be concluded that hygiene factors are linked to employee motivation which arise from external (external motivation). While satisfiers (motivators) are closely related with intrinsic motivation that arise from within the employees itself.

This theory offered an explanation why when management concentrated on hygiene factors to increase morale of employees such as increase payment, add more fringe benefits, and give better working condition, these solutions did not really work to motivate their employees.

Therefore, it is interesting to examine Herzberg two-factors theory in Indonesia context because many studies in Indonesia context found different results. Some studies found that extrinsic motivation is the trigger of job satisfaction [5,2,17]. They found that extrinsic motivation is more dominant determine employees job satisfaction. On the other hand, other studies [3,7,21] found that intrinsic motivation contributed more to job satisfaction compare to extrinsic motivation.

The contradictive results of research in job motivation and job satisfaction related to Herzberg theory are essential to examine this theory. The research will be more interesting when it is applied in restaurant and cafe business (employees) since food and beverage industry, especially restaurant and cafe is becoming an attractive business. In the future, this business is predicted to increase as a result of the increasing rate of tourism and education sector in Malang City (kabarbisnis.com, 2012). Based on data from Dinas Perijinan Kota Malang 2016, there were 40 restaurants and cafes from 267 food and beverage business that had certification to operate.

Another reason this business is interesting and still attracting investors is because “there will be no death in food and business, since people ate three times a day” said Santos Thenu, culinary and food industry expert (swa.co.id). It is also a big business because food nowadays become lifestyle trends not only everyone's need. Eat out todays becomes new trend to fulfilling socialization and actualization needs [16]. People in urban areas spent their money for food about 41% compare to properties which is only 17%.

Based on that data, cafe and restaurant is promising business in the future and it is interesting to have research in this area, especially related with employees' motivation and job satisfaction topic. Since, research in this area especially in restaurant and cafe industry are rarely to explore (Juariyah, 2015: 415). Hence, this research will fill the gap about study in restaurant and cafe employees' motivation and job satisfaction.

Considering all background and evidences, this study proposed these hypotheses:

  • Motivators have significant positive effect on employees' job satisfaction

  • Hygiene factors have significant positive effect on employees' job satisfaction

  • Motivators have greater positive significant effect on employees' job satisfaction compare to hygiene factors.

2. METHOD

By using quantitative approach, this research conducted simple random sampling for all employees in 40 restaurant and café businesses in Malang City that meet three requirements: 1) it is listed in Dinas Perijinan Malang City, 2) Because the study focus on restaurant and café business, therefore the business should have kitchen and bar to serve their menus (Marsum, 2000: 35), and 3) It should survive at least 3 years to guarantee their survival rates and popularity. From these selection, only 10 restaurant and café businesses that satisfy the requirements. The population of those 10 businesses were 204 employees. Hence the sample that representative for this study were 170 employees.

The data collection used questioner to gather all data from respondents. The questioner consists of three indicators: motivators (recognition, achievement, work itself, responsibility, and personal growth), hygiene factors (salary, job security, working condition, company's policies, and interpersonal relation), and overall job satisfaction (satisfaction with current work, satisfaction with the company, general preference with their jobs). Respondents were requested to choose their agreements/disagreements toward each item in a five-point Likert scale ranging from 5 for “strongly agree” to 1 for “strongly disagree”. The degree of confidence level of this research is 95%.

The instruments then validated and tested its reliability. From the tests, it confirmed that all items are valid and reliable.

To test the hypotheses, the study using multiple linear regression by applied SPSS software package 21.0 for Windows.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

After conducting several tests, research data set meets the criteria of data normality, has no multicollinearity, and has no heteroscedasticity.

Descriptive results show that motivators inside the restaurant and café employees was in very good scale. They agreed that working in restaurant and café business give them opportunity for advancement and growing up as better person. They also agreed that the job as café and restaurant employee is interesting. Related with hygiene factors, this external trigger of motivation was in good range. Most employees approved that interpersonal relation with co-worker is important for them. Furthermore, management policies were also important for employees. When it came to employees' job satisfaction condition, it was in good condition. It means that employees in general felt that they satisfied.

Based on that results, it can be said that motivators condition in restaurant & café employees was higher than hygiene factors. The most important motivators that reported by respondent was the advancement that they had when working in this business. They also reported that working and having job in this business is interesting. This statement showed that working as restaurant & café employees as barista, chef, and waitress is interesting. It is probably because majority of respondents (63%) are youngsters, their age is below 23. Therefore, working as restaurant & café employees, especially as barista and chef will give them new experiences and advancement in their skill, knowledge and know-how about food and beverages, because it is probably their first job to have. This finding is line with majority respondents whose agree that their job is interesting. Some of them said that working in restaurant & café become new trend today. It confirmed the lifestyle changing trends phenomena, especially about food and beverages.

Not only that, respondents also reported that hygiene factors were also important for them in term of interpersonal relationship especially related with co-worker and company policies. Respondents agreed that company policies benefit them and they agreed that their co-worker were friendly and helpful.

Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the research model, and independent t-test was used test the hypotheses of the study. With significant level set at 5%, the results of analysis are showed in Table 1 below:

Table 1

Multiple Regression Analysis Results.


Independent Variable Dependent Variable β R T-test Decisions
Motivators Job Satisfaction 0,424*** 0,794 4,993*** H1 supported
Hygiene Factors 0,511*** 7,098*** H2 supported
H3 did not supported
*p 0.05; **p 0.01; ***p 0.001; p = significance level of independent t-test
(source: data processed, 2016)

Based on data in Table 1, it can be said that both Herzberg motivational factors are significance predict employees job satisfaction. The impact of motivators and hygiene factors are significance at p 0.001. However, hygiene factors have a bigger effect on employees job satisfaction ( β =0,511)compare to motivators ( β =0,424). Both factors could explain 79,4% of variance in employees' job satisfaction.

From these results, it is clear that H1 and H2 are supported. However, H3 that predicts motivators has higher effect on employees' job satisfaction is not supported.

The positive significance effect of motivators toward employees' job satisfaction is inline with Herzberg motivation theory. This finding also confirmed previous research such as Donald (2007), Magny (2012), Perrin (2014), and Chatarina & Victoria (2015) which found direct positive effect of intrinsic motivation on employees' job satisfaction. The most powerful factor to leverage employees' job satisfaction reported by employees is advancement opportunities to have better knowledge and skill and to be a better person through doing the job. The descriptive result also reinforcing this effect that found motivators factors as the highest factor condition reported by restaurant and café employees. Therefore, H1 was supported.

This study also confirmed Herzberg theory which states that hygiene factors is the dissatisfaction suppressor. This result supported previous research [5,14,17,4] which examined the similar effect. Therefore, H2 was supported.

However, the third hypothesis was not supported. The motivators did not found to have higher effect on job satisfaction compare to hygiene factors. That is probably because these two factors should be fulfilled by company to be fully worked. Herzberg explained that “unless an employee's hygiene factors are satisfied, motivators such as opportunity for advancement will have no effect, leaving the employee unmotivated and dissatisfied” [18]. This statement explains why it is not suitable to looking for whichever influence is greater on job satisfaction, because both factors are interrelated and hygiene factors become a prerequisite of motivators to fully working build employees' motivation and job satisfaction.

4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This study examined Herzberg two factors theory of motivation in the context of restaurant and café employees. Results of study confirmed two hypotheses testing in this research that motivators and hygiene factors have positive and significant effect on employees' job satisfaction. Result of study also shows that motivators condition in restaurant and café employees was in highest range compare to hygiene factors that reported by employees. They said that become a restaurant and café employees gave them opportunities for advancement and they love the job because it was interesting job. However, an examination of hypothesis about motivators have greater effect on employees' job satisfaction compare to hygiene factors was not supported. This finding actually confirmed the Herzberg theory of motivation which states that motivators will only working fully if hygiene factors are met first. Otherwise, motivators will have no effect, leaving the employee unmotivated and dissatisfied.

Based on that, some recommendations are proposed. First, hygiene factors are important for employees to maintain them working in company and suppress dissatisfaction condition they feel, hence company should pay attention on this factor first then motivators. Second, motivators condition in restaurant and café employees are in highest range, therefore it should be managed well in order to lever the employees' motivation to do their best and optimize their job satisfaction. Last but not least, company should pay attention on their employees because most of them are on young age group (below 23) which more volatile to quit and search new job when they felt dissatisfied with their job. Therefore, it is better to include examination of intention turnover in study related with motivation and job satisfaction.

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