Does Motivators Determine Employees’ Job Satisfaction? Testing Herzberg Theory of Motivation in Indonesian Café and Restaurant Context


Job satisfaction is positive emotional attitude of someone toward his/her job, including happy and proud of his/her work. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation are the two factors affect the job satisfaction. Based on Herzberg’s two factors theory, extrinsic motivation known as dissatisfiers or hygiene factors and intrinsic motivations known as satisfiers or motivators. This study aims to (1) find out the significant effect of motivators toward restaurant and café employees’ job satisfaction, (2) investigate the significant effect of hygiene factors toward restaurant and cafe employees’ job satisfaction, (3) compare which has greater significant effect on restaurant and cafe employees’ job satisfaction. This research used a quantitative approach with multiple linear regression analysis. The population of study is all employees of restaurant and cafe in Malang City. By using proportionate random sampling technique from ten restaurant and cafe which qualified the respondent requirements, 170 respondents were chosen. The results show that the study confirmed Herzberg two-factors theory of motivation, (1) motivators has positive significant effect on employees’ job satisfaction; (2) hygiene factors has positive significant impact on employees’ job satisfaction; (3) hygiene factors has greater effect on employees’ job satisfaction compare to motivators


Keywords: Motivators, Hygiene Factors, Job Satisfaction

[1] Barney, J. 1991. Firm Resource and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, Vol. 17, No.1, pp. 99-120.

[2] Budianto, Ferdinand, & Roby, S. 2013. Pengaruh Motivasi Intrinsik dan Motivasi Ekstrinsik Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Melalui Kepuasan Kerja (Studi Pada Universitas Palangka Raya). Jurnal Sains Management Volume II, No. 2.

[3] Carolyn, S., Jeni, D., & Paul, T. 2011. Motivation, pay satisfaction, and job satisfaction of front-line employees. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management Vol. 8 No. 2: pp. 161-179.

[4] Catharina, T, & Victoria, V. 2015. The Impact of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation towards Job Satisfaction in Finance Service Department of PT. XYZ. iBuss Management Vol. 3, No. 2, 196-203

[5] Donald, P.M. & Sanjaya, K. P. 2007. Finding Workable Levers Over Work Motivation Comparing Job Satisfaction, Job Involvement, and Organizational Commitment. Administration & Society Volume 39 Number 7: 803-832.

[6] DINAS PERIJINAN KOTA MALANG. 2017. Data Perijinan Cafe dan Resto di Kota Malang. Malang: Dinas Perijinan Kota Malang.

[7] Edhrak, B.B., Chan, Y.F, B., Gharleghi, B., & KahSeng, T. 2013. The Effectiveness of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: A Study of Malaysian Amway Company’s Direct Sales Force. 4. 96-103.

[8] Fathoni, A. 2006. Organisasi dan Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia.Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta

[9] Hotho, S., and Champion, K. 2011. Small Business in The New Creative Industries: Innovation as People Management Challenge. Management Decision, Vol. 49, No.1, pp. 29-54.

[10] Juariyah, L. 2015. Recruitment and Selection Process in Restaurant and Cafe Industry in Malang City. International Conference on Science, Technology and Humanity. SELECTION_PROCESS_IN_RESTAURANT_AND_CAFE_INDUSTRY_IN_MALANG_CITY. Accessed, 08 November 2016.

[11] The Economy Grew, Restaurant Businessmen Sharp Glance Malang. Accessed, 08 November 2016.

[12] Kementrian Perindustrian Republik Indonesia. 2012. Laporan Kinerja Sektor Industri dan Kinerja Kementerian Perindustrian Tahun 2012. Jakarta: Kementrian Perindustrian (

[13] Luthans, F. 2011. Organizational Behavior, An Evidence-Based Approach, 12