KnE Social Sciences | The First International Research Conference on Economics and Business (IRCEB) | pages: 324–332

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1. INTRODUCTION

The implementation of 2013 curriculum brings out a consequence of changing several elements in National Standard of Education. Based on the on the Indonesian Government Regulation number 32 the year 2013 about the change of the Government Regulation number 19 the year 2005 about National Standard of Education, one of the changes from those four elements is the Standard Penilaian.

Kunandar (2014:35) states that authentic assessment becomes a serious emphasis in 2013 curriculum where the teachers have to implement authentic assessment in the learning process. Furthermore, there is a shift from the assessment which only measures the knowledge based on the mere results to the authentic assessment which is also able to measure attitude, knowledge, and skill competencies based on the process and results (Yuliana, 2015:48). Mueller in Nurgiyantoro (2008:252) states that authentic assessment is "a form of assessment in which the students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of knowledge and skill assessment". Thus, authentic assessment is a form of tasks that aim the learning process to show the meaningful performance in the real world which is the implementation of knowledge and skill lists.

Authentic assessment through the students' skill competence aspect can be done through a performance assessment. Performance assessment is an assessment that includes the real knowledge and skill demonstration in real life Trice (Slavin, 2009:317). “Performance assessment is an assessment technique used to determine the skill mastery through a skill test or demonstration or real practice” (Arifin, 2009:180). Performance assessment demands the students to do some tasks which can be observed by their teacher suitable with their specialization. According to Ryan (in Haryati, 2008:26), one of many ways to assess the skill aspect competence is by doing a direct observation as well as assessing the attitude (performance) of the students in the learning process (ongoing practice).

The assessment instrument that is going to be developed by the researcher is for Basic Competence Merchandise Planning Type-Based Products Categorizing. Based on Ministerial Decree No. 64 The year 2013 about content standard, Basic Competence Merchandise Planning Type-Based Products Categorizing is one of the basic components in Merchandise Planning subject for XI th grade of SMK. This assessment instrument is also designed to optimise the assessment towards the students' skill in doing the classification practice and categorizing product types.

In the Ministerial Decree of Education and Culture number 70 the year 2013 about Basic Framework and Curriculum Structure of Vocational High School/Vocational Madrasah Aliyah, Merchandise Planning subject is a subject for XI th grade in the marketing specialization. This subject gives portrayal to the students about how to manage products, classify and categorize products, explain various characteristics of products, monitor the management or products display, and keep the product display according to the plan.

The result of the preliminary study by giving an interview to them ... teacher in SMK Negeri 1 Turen Kabupaten Malang and an observation show that the teacher still has difficulties in arranging a proper performance assessment format based on the curriculum. Nevertheless, according to Stiggins in Mueller (2008:1), performance assessment is the assessment which asks the students to demonstrate their skills and certain other competencies as the implementation of their knowledge. This makes the assessment of the students' skill become less authentic. The score of the students' skill in the report is taken from the goods management practice report instead of the students' real performance from the teaching and learning process. To correspond to the issues, it is needed to develop a suitable skill assessment instrument to assess the performance of the students authentically.

As a response to the whole issues, a development research entitled “Developing Performance-Based Authentic Assessment Instruments in Learning Productive Marketing of Merchandise Planning Subject“ was conducted.

2. METHOD

This development research uses Research and Development (R&D) model. R&D model according to Borg and Gall (in Arifin, 2012:128) is a product development model that is suitable in creating a performance-based authentic assessment instrument because this development model is used in the product development in formal education so that it is expected to ease the researcher in conducting the research. Furthermore, the stages in the R&D model is very specific. Thus, the results of this research are anticipated to fulfill the expectation. There are 10 stages in the development research, which are (1) research and information collecting; (2) planning; (3) develop preliminary from product; (4) preliminary; (5) main product revision; (6) main field testing; (7) operational product revision; (8) operational field testing; (9) final product revision; (10) dissemination and implementation.

Figure 1

The Stages in Developing Performance-Based Authentic Assessment Instrument in Merchandise Planning Subject Research.

fig-1.jpg

The development of this assessment instrument making only adapts the first until the fifth stage of R&D model because this research aims to develop and describe the expediency of the performance-based authentic assessment instrument only until its limited testing result revision.

The development research stages that was conducted can be seen more detailed in this Figure.

3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

The development of this Performance-Based Authentic Assessment Instrument will be validated by three validators including Content Validation and Construct Validation. The test subject in this research is the teacher of marketing productive in SMK Negeri 1 Turen and the students of the XI th Marketing class of SMK Negeri 1 Turen. The instrument used in the research and development data collection is in a form of questionnaire.

There are three types of questionnaire used in this instrument research and development, and those three questionnaires are validation questionnaire for the validators, teacher's response towards the performance observation the questionnaire, and students' response towards the Worksheet questionnaire.

Table 1

The Quantitative Result Data of Content Validation by the Expert Validator (Lecturer) towards the Knowledge Assessment Instrument.


Content Validator Empirical Score (f) Ideal Score (N) % Validity Criteria
a 36 36 100 Valid
(Source: Questionnaire of Knowledge Assessment Content Validation analyzed by the researcher in 2016)
Table 2

The Quantitative Result Data of Content Validation by the Expert Validator (Lecturer) towards the Skill Assessment Instrument.


Content Validator Empirical Score (f) Ideal Score (N) % Validity Criteria
a 40 40 100 Valid
(Source: Questionnaire of Attitude Assessment Content Validation analyzed by the researcher in 2016)
Table 3

The Quantitative Result Data of Content Validation by the Expert Validator (Lecturer) towards the Attitude Assessment Instrument.


Content Validator Empirical Score (f) Ideal Score (N) % Validity Criteria
a 40 40 100 Valid
(Source: Questionnaire of Skill Assessment Content Validation analyzed by the researcher in 2016)

Based on the whole analysis of the content validation in three Performance-Based Authentic Assessment Instrument, it has the average of 100

The validation data obtained from the content validator, Drs. Moh. Arief, M.Si, was analyzed. The analysis of validation result by the validator from its content is shown below:

The data analysis of the construct validation is shown below:

Table 4

The Quantitative Result Data of Construct Validation by the Expert Validator (Teacher) towards the Knowledge Assessment Instrument.


Content Validator Empirical Score (f) Ideal Score (N) % Validity Criteria
b 39 40 97.50 Valid
c 39 40
Total 78 80
(Source: Questionnaire of Attitude Assessment Construct Validation analyzed by the researcher in 2016)
Table 5

The Quantitative Result Data of Construct Validation by the Expert Validator (Teacher) towards the Skill Assessment Instrument.


Content Validator Empirical Score (f) Ideal Score (N) % Validity Criteria
b 48 48 97.91 Valid
c 46 48
Total 94 96
(Source: Questionnaire of Skill Assessment Construct Validation analyzed by the researcher in 2016)
Table 6

The Quantitative Result Data of Construct Validation by the Expert Validator (Teacher) towards the Attitude Assessment Instrument.


Content Validator Empirical Score (f) Ideal Score (N) % Validity Criteria
b 28 28 96.42 Valid
c 27 28
Total 55 56
(Source: Questionnaire of Attitude Assessment Construct Validation analyzed by the researcher in 2016)

Based on the whole analysis of the construct validation in three Performance-Based Authentic Assessment Instrument, it has the average of 97.82

The next is the explanation of the data analysis result on the limited test of the researcher's subjects, which are the teacher and 26 students. The goal of this analysis is to make a base to revise the final product. The teacher's assessment towards the Performance Observation Sheet is shown below:

Table 7

The Teacher’s Assessment Questionnaire towards the Performance Observation Sheet based on the limited test.


Content Validator Empirical Score (f) Ideal Score (N) % Validity Criteria
1 38 40 95 Layak
(Source: The Teacher’s Assessment Questionnaire towards the Performance Observation Sheet analyzed by the researcher in 2016)
Table 8

The Students’ Assessment Questionnaire towards the Worksheet based on the limited test.


Content Validator Empirical Score (f) Ideal Score (N) % Validity Criteria
Student a 29 Valid Layak
Student b 29 Valid Layak
Student c 29 Valid Layak
Student d 29 Valid Layak
Student e 30 Valid Layak
Student f 28 Valid Layak
Student g 30 Valid Layak
Student h 31 Valid Layak
Student i 31 Valid Layak
Student j 31 Valid Layak
Student k 29 Valid Layak
Student l 28 Valid Layak
Total 354 384 92,18 Valid
(Source: The Students’ Assessment Questionnaire towards the Worksheet analyzed by the researcher in 2016)

Based on the data analysis result in the limited test, the teacher’s assessment towards the Performance Observation Sheet is 95

4. CONCLUSION AND FINDINGS

Conclusion

According to the result of the revised development, it can be concluded that:

  • This research and development create a performance-based authentic assessment instrument in the Merchandise Planning subject for the XI th Marketing class of Vocational High School (SMK).

  • The expediency of the performance-based authentic assessment instrument based on the result of content and construct validity and the limited test is valid. However, there are several things that need to be revised, and the revision has been done by the researcher to fix the assessment instrument.

5. Recommendation of the Instrument Utilization

The researcher, in order to use the instrument well, recommends to (a) adjust the product when it is used in other schools, because the choice of task in the skill aspect is based on the condition of the laboratory of each school in the planning practice, (b) determine what aspects are really needed to conduct the assessment so that there are not too many aspects in the assessment process, and the teacher can be more focused in the students' performance.

6. Recommendation of Dissemination

Dissemination is an act of sharing a product that has been developed in order to be known by the citizens and to be utilized by its function. The product of this development result can be shared through Teacher Team of Productive Subject of SMK in Marketing Major (MGMP) so that all of the Merchandise Planning teachers are able to use it as a Merchandise Planning assessment. (b) Research report journals, so that the teachers from all parts of the country are able to access the result of the research. With this, the research can be useful for the continuity of learning and teaching process.

7. Further Product Development

Based on the product testing result, the development of the next product is expected to (a) be done in a greater scale, and (b) be done by looking at the effectiveness of the product developed through a research experiment.

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