KnE Social Sciences | The First International Research Conference on Economics and Business (IRCEB) | pages: 270–288

, , and

1. INTRODUCTION

In the middle of the hectic activities of the global citizens, traveling is one of the primary needs of every human. There are many tourism objects chosen by tourists. There is a part of the tourists who love natural, cultural, and even artificial objects. Indonesia is a country which has various tourism objects because of its enormous cultures, values, beliefs, weathers, tribes, and so on and so forth. Thus, many tourists travel to Indonesia. Tourism objects and attractions are a form of a facility which can attract tourists and visitors to come to a certain area and place. The attractions that have not been taken care of well is a potential resource and they cannot be called as a tourism attraction before it is developed. Without attractions, a place will be difficult to be called as a tourism object.

One of Indonesia's potentials is tourism objects, both natural and artificial ones. There are a plethora of Indonesia's tourism objects' characteristics, such as mountains, sea, waterfalls, and so on. Other artificial tourism objects might include museums which show historical things, pulchritudinous mosques, and oceanic sceneries. A number of tourism objects which have strong characteristics will persuade domestic and foreign tourists to come, and it will indirectly add the income per capita of that area.

One of the objects that will be researched is the one that introduces the culture and its uniqueness, Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School, which is also usually called as Tiban Mosque, located in the Southern Malang. The result of the interview with Gus Ipung, one of the boarding house's administrators, shows that the boarding house was built and established by (late) KH. Ahmad Bahru Mafdlaluddin Shaleh Al Mahbub Rahmad Alam, or usually called as Kiai Ahmad, in 1978. This means that it has been there for 37 years long. Nevertheless, this boarding house started to gain domestic and foreign tourists in the last 15 years. This big number of tourists is caused by the pulchritude of the building, and also by the rumor that it was established by some genie spirit. However, the boarding house administrators and the local citizens denied that rumor.

According to the observation and unstructured interviews with both of the domestic and foreign tourists, a number of them want to travel there because of the unusual rumor of how the building was established, even though the boarding house's administrators said it was a false rumor. Besides, the billboards promote the annual events like group circumcision, group marriage of the students, and many more. The tourist's behavior here learns about how the individuals, groups, and organizations choose, wear, buy, and use the service offered by the users.

Cultural factor is one of the things that attract the tourists. This factor was created from the ancestors and is developed and introduced by their descendants. To introduce the culture as one of the aspects that attract the tourists to come, there should be a strategy to protect the culture that exists from its own heritage and competitive side. Tourism development is needed in order to push the equality of having the entrepreneurship opportunities and acquiring benefits as well as confronting challenges of local, national, and global changes.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Customer Behaviour

According to Women (2002), customer behavior is a study about buying the unit and the process of exchange that includes gain, consumption, and disposal, goods, services, experiences, and ideas. Swastha and Handoko (2000:10) state that customer behavior can be defined as individual activities that are directly involved in acquiring and using goods and services, as well as the process of taking the decision in the preparation and deciding certain activities. On the other hand, Engle (2005) says that customer behavior is a direct action to acquire, consume, and spend services and the process of making decisions that precede the core action.

Tourism attractions that are possessed by a destination is something that can be seen, like sceneries, ancient relics, shows, or something that can be done, like travelling, doing sports, researching, or something that can be purchased, which are antique stuffs or souvenirs, or something that can be enjoyed, like fresh air that is free from pollution, service, or something edible which is a characteristic of a certain area/country. This also means that tourism attraction is anything that triggers someone and/or a group of people to visit because it has a meaning, such as sceneries, ancient and historical relics, and certain events (Warpani & Indira, 2007: 45). Tourism product is a service product. Based on Kotler's (2008) opinion, a service is an action or activity that is offered by a particular party to another, which basically has no physical form and does not give any possession.

Cultural Attraction

Strategic steps in the promotion, from packaging, distribution, and media used, are essential in creating cultural events as a branding component [6]. According to Koentjaraningrat, culture is a system of ideas and feelings, an action, and creation made by humans in their social lives, which is possessed by learning it. Based on KBBI, culture means ideas, cultures, and values. Etymologically, it has a root word of `culture' which refers to how people think.

Uniqueness

From the cultural perspective, tourism uniqueness that comes from indigenous tourism (Ryan, 2005) is a substantial branding component. Damanik and Weber (2006: 13) state that a good tourism attraction is strongly related to four this, and they are uniqueness, originality, authenticity, and variety. Uniqueness means as the combination that is possessed by a tourist attraction. Originality reflects the purity, which is how far a product is not contaminated and it does not adopt a value which is different from what its original value. Authenticity refers to genuineness. The difference with the originality is that authenticity is often correlated with the level of antiquity and exoticism of a tourist attraction. Authenticity is a value category which combines natural, exoticism, and earthy characteristics.

Promotion

According to KBBI, promotion is a form of introduction to improving the business. Promotion is the communication used by marketers. As an element of promotion, selling promotion is an essential component in promoting a product. The definition of promotion according to American Marketing Association (AMA) that is quoted by Sustina book is: "Sales promotion is media and nonmedia marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product quality". This definition above shows that promotion is a marketing effort that has the quality of media and non media to persuade the consumers, increase the demands from the consumers, and to fix the quality of a product.

Hospitality

Hospitality comes from Latin noun hospitium (adj. hospitalis), which is derived from hops, meaning guest or host. This concept is also affected by a Greek word xenos, that points to a foreigner who gives an address. Hospitality is a form of warmness in receiving from others, respect, friendship and brethren to others, especially to the guests who come. (Kompas 10 th of June 2008).

Customer Satisfaction (Tourists)

Generally, satisfaction is happiness and disappointment of a person that comes from the comparison between the impression of a product and the hopes (Kotler, 2007). Anderson in Mulyono (2008) states that customer satisfaction is the whole rating of a purchase and consumption experience of a good or service. According to Kotler (2008), a company can measure its customer satisfaction in several ways: Firstly, the complaint and suggestion system. Second, customer satisfaction survey. The third is ghost shopping. And loss customer analysis.

According to Menurut Fornell and Wernerfelt (1987), the dissatisfied customer in receiving a service will give complaints to the company. The company that always wants to create customer satisfaction should receive them well. Marketing concept nowadays emphasizes on the satisfaction of the consumers, so that the marketers who want to be successful have to have a good comprehension of consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Consumer satisfaction is a positive, neutral, and negative feelings from the consumers towards the value received from a product (Gregoire and Spears, 2006:604).

3. Methodology

This research uses ex-post facto research design, which is observing past events that have happened to the consumer behaviors considered in visiting a cultural tourism object. The approach used in this research is descriptive, by looking at the sex, age, occupation, origin, education, and the quantity of the tourists doing a revisit. This analysis aims to understand the direction of the correlation between the independent and the dependent variable, and to know whether each independent variable correlates positively or negatively, and to predict the value of the dependent variable whether the dependent variable increases or decreases.

The observed variables in this research include culture, uniqueness, promotion, hospitality, cost, and other service qualities to comprehend their effects towards the tourists' satisfaction with the help of a statistics programme SPSS for Windows version 16.0. The correlation between variables in this research is drawn in this diagram:

Figure 1

Research model of the effects of tourism attractions towards the tourist's satisfaction (Source: processed by the researcher, 2015).

fig-1.jpg

Population and Sample

The population in this research is all of the visiting tourists. Based on the data collection result, it was known that the population consists of 655 tourist groups.

Table 1

The Number of the Tourists.


No Day/ Date Number of Groups Number of Tourists Other information
1 Friday/23 Oct 2015 21 groups 102 people
2 Saturday/24 Oct 2015 97 groups 5.049 people
3 Sunday/25 Oct 2015 429 groups 23.851 people
4 Monday/26 Oct 2015 26 groups 129 people
5 Tuesday/27 Oct 2015 23 groups 106 people
6 Wednesday/28 Oct 2015 36 groups 954 people
7 Thursday/29 Oct 2015 23 groups 449 people
Total 655 groups 30.640 people
Source: Data of Ponpes Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Visitors, 23 th -29 th October 2015

The sample is a part of a sum and the characteristics that the population has (Sugiyono, 2011:120). A big population is not effective to be conducted a research because it is too broad. Thus, a part of the population that is considered as the representation of the populations is taken as the sample of the research.

With the population of 655 groups of tourists, to determine the sample of the research conducted by the researcher, the researcher used this formula as formed by Slovin in Sanusi (2011):

n=N1+Nα2
n=6551+6555%2
n=6552,638=248

Information:

n = sample size

N = population size

α = standard error (in percentage)

The method of taking a sample is nonprobability sampling. The method used are two: (a) Accidental Sampling, which is the method to take the sample to understand the tourists' satisfaction by giving questionnaires for those who were visiting Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School. (b) Purposive Sampling in which a technique to take a sample based on several certain characteristics and features that are considered having correlations with the problems in this research, and they are the leader of each group.

4. Results and discussion

Data Type

The data in this research are primary and secondary data. Primary data is obtained from observation and data that was taken from a direct source, while secondary data is obtained from the data that has been processed further through graphics, diagrams, and so on and so forth. According to Sugiyono (2010:138), "There are two types of data, which are quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data is the data in a form of numbers, and qualitative data is the data in a form of words and sentences". The data in this research is quantitative data, for the data was directly taken from the respondents as a part of the sample in a form of numbers.

Data Source

According to Arikunto (2006:107), the data source this research is the "subject in which this data was taken from". There are two types of data, which are primary and secondary data. The primary data source is the one taken directly from the field and the respondents, while secondary data source is the other that is taken not from the respondents but from several documents.

The data source used in this research is the primary data source. The primary data source in this research is the source that comes from the answers of the respondents about the factors that affect the domestic and foreign tourists in traveling in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School by filling in the questionnaires distributed by the researcher.

Data Collection Technique

Data collection is an important part of a research. Arikunto (2010: 265) states that set up the instrument is an essential work in conducting a research, but collecting the data is far more important. The data collection technique used by the research in conducting this study is library research or field research with interviewing as a side method.

The method used in collecting the relevant data is to solve and analyze the issues. The data can be obtained in two ways, which are: (1) Library research, which is collecting the theoretical data with reviewing related literature. (2) Field research, which can be done by (a) Interview. The researcher conducted direct interviews with any parties related to the research, which were the chosen tourist respondents to get the needed data. (b) Questionnaire. Questionnaires that were distributed by the researcher to the respondents in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School as the tourists.

Data Analysis Technique

After collecting all data, the data is analyzed using a data analysis technique to reveal the problem being researched. The analysis techniques used in this research are factor analysis technique and inferential statistical analysis technique.

Normality test

Normality test is a test in a double linear regression model. Normality test aims to test the independent and dependent variables to understand whether the distribution is normal or not. The method used to test the normality is using P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual normal graphics.The requirement of the normality can be fulfilled if the residual comes from a normal distribution so that the data distribution is around the straight line. The result of the normality test is shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2

Normality Test.

fig-2.jpg

Based on Figure 2, it can be concluded that the normality assumption is fulfilled because it can be seen that the points are distributed around the diagonal line so that the regression model fulfills the normality assumption and is accepted to be used in this research.

Multicollinearity Test

Multicollinearity exists because there is a causal correlation between two or more independent variables or the fact that two or more other variables are affected by the third variable outside the model. Multicollinearity aims to test whether there is a correlation between the independent variables in the regression model.To detect whether there is a multicollinearity or not is by looking at the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) value. If the value is not more than 10, the model is free from multicollinearity.

Table 2

Calculation Result of VIF and TOL values.


No Independent Variables VIF TOL Keterangan
1 Culture 2,221 0,450 No multicollinearity problems
2 Uniqueness 2,510 0,398 No multicollinearity problems
3 Promotion 1,922 0,520 No multicollinearity problems
4 Hospitality 1,691 0,591 No multicollinearity problems
5 Cost 2,319 0,431 No multicollinearity problems
Source: Attachments

From Table 2, the value of Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) is not more than 10 and the tolerance value is more than 0.1 so that there is no multicollinearity from the three variables. It can be concluded that the regression model is accepted because the independent variables that can be used in the regression do not correlate to each other.

Heteroscedasticity Test

This test aims to comprehend whether the regression model has the same variance or not. A good regression model is a model which has same variance (homoscedasticity). The detection of heteroscedasticity can be done by looking at the test result of Glejser test with the significance value of 96.9%.

Table 4.20 Glesjer Test Result

fig-3.jpg

Source: Attachment 13

Simple Linear Regression

Regression analysis is done to obtain the influence of the independent variable (X) towards the dependent variable (Y). Based on the data processing using SPSS 16 for Windows, we can see the results from table 3.

Table 3

Double Regression Analysis Result.


Variable Unstandardized Coefficients T-test Sig t
(Constant) 0.439 6.644 .000
Culture 0.139 8.676 .000
R Square (R2) = 0,233
Adj R Square = 0,230
Source: Attachment 14

Table 3 Explanation

  • The constant value of 0.439 shows that there is no influence of the independent variable (X) towards dependent variable (Y).

  • Coefficient X (Culture) as much as 0.139 shows that if the culture (X) increases as much as 1, the satisfaction of the tourists (Y) will increase as well as much as 0.139 or 13.9%. On the contrary, every 1 decreasing value of culture will also decrease the satisfaction of the tourists by 0.139 or 13.9%.

The amount of the independent variable's contribution is simultaneous towards the dependent variable, based on the calculation in Table 3 with the value of determination coefficient (R Square) of 0.233, it explains that the contribution of the independent variable (X) calculated in the regression equation towards Y is 23.3%. While the other 76.7% is contributed by other variables that are not included in this equation.

T-Test

The t-test is used to understand the influence of cultural factor (X) to the dependent variable, which is the satisfaction of the tourists (Y) in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School partially. The t-test is done to compare the result of T-Value with T-Table with a significance level of 5%. If T-Value is higher than T-Table, the alternate hypothesis is accepted. If the T-Value is lower than the T-Table, the alternate hypothesis is rejected. The result of T-Test can be seen from Table 4.

Table 4

T-Test Result.


Independent Variable T-Value T-Table Sig
Culture 8.676 1.651 .000
Source: Attachment 14

The influence of the independent variable (culture) towards the dependent variable (service quality) based on the Table 4 shows that the value of t value 8,676 > t table 1,651 and the significance of t 0,000 < 0,05. This test proves that the alternate hypothesis is rejected so that we can conclude that cultural factor does affect significantly towards the satisfaction of the tourists.

5. Discussion

The respondents in this research are the visitors of Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School from November to December 2015. The researcher got the insights on the satisfaction of the tourists, whether they consider the culture, uniqueness, promotion, hospitality, and cost in it.

The Influence of Culture towards the Satisfaction of the Tourists in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School

The next analysis result is to see the influence of the attraction towards the tourist satisfaction for those who visit the cultural tourism object of Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School. The most dominating factor in the attraction is the cultural factor. The satisfaction has a strong correlation with the consumer behavior and the tourist's behavior. According to Kotler (2007), consumer behavior is defined as an act that can be directly accepted by the consumers in obtaining, consuming, and also using a product or service, as well as the process of making a decision that precedes the action per se. While based on Kotler and Armstrong (2009:9), consumer satisfaction is how far the product meets the consumers' expectations.

A consumer is a person who uses a good and/or service available in living a social life, both for their own goods, family, others, and not for sale. Nowadays, it is not a secret anymore that the consumer is truly the king so that the producers who have holistic marketing principal should consider the consumers' rights.

Thenceforth, the consumer behavior can be divided into two parts (Swastha, 2000). The first is the visible behaviors, and the variables might include the amount of the purchase, time elapsed, and the transaction process done by the consumers. The second is the invisible behaviors, and the variables are perception, remembrance of an information, and the possession of a consumer. The consumer behavior determines the process of taking the decision to buy, where the stages start from the introduction of the problem, and that is the pressure to fulfill their needs. The next stage is looking for the information about the service needed. Next, it is the selection stage. Lastly, it is the decision to buy or not and whether the consumer will repurchase the same thing in the future or not, based on the satisfaction towards the service per se (Tjiptono,1999).

If the performance of the product is lower than the consumers' expectations, the customer will be very happy about it. To determine the value of the customer's satisfaction can be done by calculating the difference between the expectations and the reality. This is in line with the theory which says that comparing the expectation and the feelings of the consumers post-purchase is the best way to measure the consumers' satisfaction (Oliver 1977, 1980; Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry 1985, 1988). When the performance of the product fulfills or exceeds the expectation of the tourists, they will be satisfied (disconfirmation paradigm). A similar thing is also proposed by a perspective from psychology (Engel et al., 1995) which states that the consumers cognitively assess their own satisfaction by comparing the difference between the total or the combination of the ideal product attribute with their perception of the real attribute combination.

From the simple regression analysis of the influence of culture (X) towards the tourists' satisfaction (Y), it was found that the result is positively significant. This is also in line with the theory from Oliver (1980) which states that sceneries and the development of culture can improve the satisfaction of the visitors. Besides, Kotler says that cultural factor also gives a broad influence on the customers' satisfaction. A company should understand the role played by culture, sub-culture, and the social class of the consumers. Kotler (2007) also says that culture is the most basic cause of why people desire something and it determines someone's behavior. Culture is a collection of basic values, perceptions, goals, and behaviors that are learned by a group of people, families, and other important parties. Every culture consists of sub-cultures. A smaller sub-culture gives identification and socialization of something more specific to the members. Sub-culture can be divided into four types: Nationalism, religious, races, and geographic areas groups. Many sub-cultures form the market segment and the marketers often design their products and the marketing programmes based on the consumers' needs. Social classes are the citizens who are relatively permanent and they survive for quite a long time in a group of people, which is structured into the hierarchy and the membership has values, desire, and behaviors that are similar. Social class is not determined by a single factor, like income, but more by the combination of the income, occupation, education, wealth, and other variables.

In this research, the value of the cultural influence towards the tourists' satisfaction is as much as 23.3%. Thus, it can be concluded that there are still other variables that influence the tourists' satisfaction, which are the cost, product attribute, service quality, promotion, facilities, and so on. This is supported by the theory from Zeithmal and Bitner (2003) who state that satisfaction is a broader concept than a mere service quality assessment. And it is also affected by other factors like the quality of a service, product price quality, situation factor, and individual factor from the consumers. Lupyoadi (2001) thinks that what affects the tourists' satisfaction are: product quality, a service quality, emotion, price, and cost.

The Influence of Uniqueness towards the Satisfaction of the Tourists in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School

Based on the hypothesis testing result in Chapter IV, it can be concluded that uniqueness does not influence the tourists' satisfaction. This means that the perception of the visitors about a cultural tourism object's uniqueness does not have any influence towards the visitors' satisfaction. The result of this research is different from the theoretical study of Damanik and Weber (2006:13) which says that a good tourism attraction is related to four things, that are uniqueness, originality, authenticity, and variety. Uniqueness means the combination of rarity and the characteristics of a tourist attraction. Originality reflects the genuineness and the purity, which is how far a product is not contaminated or does not adopt a different value from its own. Authenticity refers to the originality of something, but it is more often correlated with the level of antique or exoticism of culture as a tourist attraction. Authenticity is a category of value that combines natural, exoticism, and earthy characteristics.

The uniqueness of this cultural tourism object is proven that it does not influence the tourists' satisfaction when they travel to a certain place. This does not mean that the administrator of the cultural tourism object does not develop the object, but there are other things that make the tourists unsatisfied with the uniqueness. Some of them may include the factor of those who have visited the place before, or they regularly go there, and more.

The Influence of Promotion towards the Satisfaction of the Tourists in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School

From the hypothesis testing result in Chapter IV, it was found that promotion does not affect the satisfaction of the tourists. This means that the perception of the tourists about the cultural tourism object's promotion does not have any influence towards the tourists' satisfaction when they visit. The result of this research is different from the theoretical study from Tjiptono (2005:219) which explains that promotion is one of the determining factors of a marketing programme's success. It does not matter if a product has a very high quality or very interesting. If the consumers have never heard of its name and they are not sure whether it will be useful for them or not, they will not buy it. Kotler (2008) mentions that marketing is one social and managerial process which makes an individual or group attain what they need and want through branding and value and product exchange with others. This explains that promotion does affect the tourists' behavior from the visiting and the satisfaction obtained. Promotion is an activity of communication the information from the sellers to the buyers or other parties in some ways that affect an attitude and behavior. Without promotion, the existence of a product will be low and the consumers will possibly not understand at all about the product. The consumers who do not know about the product will lessen or abolish the probability of being a loyal customer. This is shown by the customers after they make the purchase process [5]. If they feel satisfied, they will show a high probability to repurchase the same product. The satisfied customers will also prefer to give their preferences about the product to others, but not with the unsatisfied customers. The process will be repeated until the consumers feel satisfied with their decisions of purchasing the product.

Promotion in a cultural tourism object is proven that it does not affect the tourists' satisfaction. This does not mean that it was not done, but there are other things that caused the promotion of the tourism object failed to affect their satisfactory. Those things are the promotion media that is not understood by the visitors, the inappropriate media used, and so on.

The message deliverance in the promotional media has an essential role in the communication process. Without media, the message will not be delivered to the visitors, for the promotional media used are websites, billboard, and Word of Mouth (WOM). Because the majority of the visitors are religious groups and private groups, those promotional media cannot affect the tourists' satisfaction positively and significantly.

The Influence of Hospitality towards the Satisfaction of the Tourists in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School

The next analysis result is to see whether the attraction affects the satisfaction of the tourists in the cultural tourism object of Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School. Based on the analysis result in Chapter IV, we can understand that there is a positive significant influence of hospitality towards the tourists' satisfaction. In other words, the more hospitable the manager of the tourism object is, the higher as well the satisfaction of the visitors in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School.

This is in line with Azmi's theory that hospitality is a designing and movement activity or a guide by a company or an organization related to the rules and responsibility as well as the task of the workers. Hospitality is a manifestation of warmness expression in accepting other people, respecting, and also having the friendship, especially to the visiting guests. (Kompas 10 th of June 2008). Based on that factor, hospitality has a strong correlation with the tourists' satisfaction, because if the managers of the tourism objects accept their visitors well, the visitors will be satisfied.

Hospitality is an industry that is very related to tourism. This industry deals a lot with the consumers so that the marketers have to be able to make the consumers satisfied with the hospitality given by the company.Public Relations generally is involved actively in the campaigns through different kinds of media. Public Relations must promote the programmes in the company. The role of a Public Relation is to establish and keep a good relationship with the guests and provide information to the citizens in each of the company's activities. Hospitality is a service that consists of many marketing components, which are 7P (Price, Product, Place, Promotion, Presentation, Process, People). This is different from the products in a form of goods which has 4P (Price, Product, Place, Promotion). The people who are served by Public Relation do not limit only to the consumers, but also all of the parties related to the organization or the company so that it is strongly has a correlation with the communication in a particular organization. In fact, Public Relations usually is confused with the advertisement, while actually it is just limited to a certain department or marketing functions only. At the same time also consume foods/beverages and accommodation.

Hospitality is an attitude of keeping the relationship between the guest and the service and also refers to the activity of receiving guest and the service for the guests with freedom and comfort.

The Influence of Cost towards the Satisfaction of the Tourists in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School

According to the analysis result in Chapter IV, we can conclude that there is a positive significant influence on cost towards the visitors' satisfaction. This one is in line with the theory from Tjiptono (2007:178) stating that cost means an amount of money (monetary unit) and/or other aspects that contain utilities or other functions needed to get a service. Utilities are the attributes or factors that are potential to fulfill the needs and any other particulars desire. Based on that theory, the satisfaction of the tourists can be influenced by the cost.

The tourism object of Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School does not use tickets for the visitors because they consider them as the guests. Besides, the souvenirs and food around the object are relatively cheap, which makes the visitors satisfied from the perspective of the cost in visiting this tourism object.

Tourism Attraction is Correlated Positive and Significant Partially towards the Satisfaction of the Tourists in Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School

According to the discussion in Chapter IV, we can understand that from the five variables, which are culture, uniqueness, promotion, hospitality, and cost, they have a positive significant impact on the tourists' satisfaction. This research result is suitable with the content of Act No 10 the year 2009 that the attraction is anything that has uniqueness, easiness, and values that may come in a form of natural resource, culture, and goods made by humans as an objective for tourists. That is also in line with a research by Dimyati (2012) which states that "product attributes have good assessments from the consumers so that they can improve their satisfaction". The creation of a satisfied consumer begins with a good attribute. If the attribute is well made, the consumer, or in this case the tourists, will feel satisfied with what they have received.

6. Conclusion

Based on the research result and the discussion about the influence of the attractions in a tourism object towards the satisfaction of the cultural tourism object tourists, it can be concluded that: (1) There is a positive significant impact of culture towards the satisfaction of the consumers. This also means that cultural has a good influence towards the visitors' satisfaction in visiting Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School. It is proven by the answers from the respondents who agree on the question items asked. (2) There is no positive and significant impact on the uniqueness of a place towards the tourists' satisfaction. In other words, there is no good influence on the uniqueness of the place towards the tourists' satisfaction when they visit Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School. (3) There is no positive and significant impact of promotion towards the consumers' satisfaction. Thus, the promotion does not really affect the tourists' satisfaction in visiting Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School. (4) There is a positive significant impact of hospitality towards the consumers' satisfaction. This means that hospitality brings a good satisfaction when they visit Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School. It is proven by the answers given by the respondents who agree on the question items asked. (5) There is a positive significant influence on cost towards the consumers' satisfaction. Thus, the cost has a good impact towards the satisfaction of the tourists who visit Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School. It is proven by the answers given by the respondents who agree on the question items asked. (6) Tourism object attractions affect positively significant in a simultaneous way towards the visitors, and it is proven by the result of SPSS which has a 58.6% of influence. And the simultaneous impact has the significance value of 0,000 < 0,05. This test shows that Ho is rejected and it can be concluded that the attractions do influence positively and significantly towards the tourists' satisfaction.

7. RECOMMENDATION

Based on that, the researcher recommends to follow up in relation to this research. Those might include: (1) For the managers of the tourism object of Biharu Bahri Asali Fadhoilir Rohmah Islamic Boarding School to consider the development of the features used, like visitors card to get into and out of the are, tour guides, improving the promotions, giving more detailed information about the historical backgrounds, giving trip guides with flow chart or the map of the object, giving information about the nearest hotels or guesthouses, and improving the hospitality service by smiling, greeting, and addressing to the visitors. (2) For the tourists to consider the place as a tourism object with family, neighbors, and particular groups, especially a tourism object in East Java. (3) For the next researcher to use this research results to understand the influence of the attractions towards the satisfaction of the tourists. It is advised for the next researchers to add or to reduce the research variables.

References

1 

Undang-undang No 10 tahun 2009 tentang Kepariwisataan

2 

Swasta, B dan Handoko. 2000. Manajemen Pemasaran: Analisa dan Perilaku Konsumen.Yogyakarta: BPFE.

3 

Engel, J F.,et al,. 2005. Perilaku Konsumen. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama

4 

Warpani, S dan Indira. 2007. Pariwisata Dalam Tata Ruang Wilayah. Bandung: ITB.

5 

Kotler, P. 2008. Manajemen Pemasaran. Jakarta: Salemba Empat.

6 

Hsu, Chaty H.C. and Powers T. 2002. Marketing Hospitality. New York, USA: John Wileys & Sons, Inc.

7 

Damanik, J dan Helmut F. W. 2006. Perencanaan Ekowisata Dari Teori ke Aplikasi. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.

8 

Gregoire, M.B dan Spears, M.C. 2006. Food Service Organizations A Managerial and Systems Approach, Sixth Edition. New Jersey: Perason prentice Hall.

9 

Sugiyono. 2011. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, kualitatif dan R & D. Bandung: Alfabet.

10 

Arikunto, S. 2010. Prosedur penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. (Edisi Revisi). Jakarta: Rineka Cipta

FULL TEXT

Statistics

  • Downloads 16
  • Views 446

Navigation

Refbacks



ISSN: 2518-668X