1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The process of learning is an effort to give knowledge or information to students. An existing knowledge and information in the students' selves will be related and then they will be used as the basis for making conclusions regarding a trouble. All those things will be directed toward the changes in the students' behaviors. The change will not only be in the increment of knowledge by also in the form of their skills, behaviors, comprehension, interests, and self-improvement. Thus, the process of learning involves activities of minds and bodies that will create changes in the skills that students possess from the teaching and learning process which in turn has to produce a maximum outcome. According to Dimyanti and Mudjiono (2010:20) “Learning outcome is the peak of learning process”. The learning outcome occurs because of the teacher's evaluation and basically covers cognitive, affective, psychomotor aspects.
A study can be considered as successful if the students show great activities. So far, students in SMK PGRI Sooko Mojokerto and others vocational high schools only partly come to schools to listen to the teachers' explanation and then do their tasks back at home and so on. Most students are inactive in classrooms. Therefore, most students still memorize the material and a lot still feels pressured with the learning process. Students have to be the main actors in the class but the implemented learning model still does not involve the students maximally. This condition then becomes a constraint for a learning medium that creates a positive change.
In order to create a learning that is suitable for the hoped purpose in the form of deep comprehension, we need the correct approach. Teachers have a great role in this matter to create a learning environment where the students are interested in the taught material. The reality out on the field shows that the process of teaching and learning still uses learning model of lecturing that causes a lot of influences toward the outcome. Based on some theories and experiences, teachers should prepare everything before conducting the study to prepare a good and systematic learning situation.
One of the efforts done by teachers is the usage of a learning method or model that is suitable for the condition and situation of a class. A number of students influence the usage of learning model that will be used. To achieve the goal of the learning material, teachers need to choose an appropriate learning model to attract the students' interest in the subjects, such as cooperative learning model. According to Hwang (2008: 148), all the students' learning will be helped by sharing, teaching, explaining, and motivating each other. The crafts and entrepreneurship subject can create knowledge and skill that illustrates the condition that will be faced by the students in the real working field.
The researcher wants to do a research regarding the cooperative learning model of Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) dan Co-op Co-op that is implemented in the crafts and entrepreneurship subject to create an active and fun learning situation that will improve the outcome. According to Wijayanti (2016): “The students are enthusiastic and interested in teaching reading procedure text by using two stays two stray techniques because they can share with their group”.In the learning, students are hoped to be involved directly and have a skill in entrepreneurship. Another hope is that students can understand the material contextually. Just like the result of the research done by Hamiddin (2012) stated that using TSTS has improved the comprehension and participation of the students towards poetry. This is shown by the means of the first cycle where the students get 76 and in the second cycle 80. While the participation of the students in the learning process in the first cycle is 71% and in the second cycle is 86%. It can be concluded from those results that most students are active and have the motivation for learning and understanding poetry. The research was done by Delfian (2014) resulted in the co-op co-op model has improved the comprehension and participation of the students in learning social sciences. This is shown by the first means being 6,4 and the second 8,1. It can be concluded from those results that most students are active and have the motivation for learning and understanding social sciences. According to Saputra (2016:227), by using TSTS, students not only got better academic scores but also gave a positive result in class social dynamics.
TSTS learning model is one of the types of cooperative learning that gives chances to groups to distribute the outcome and information to other groups. According to Sulisworo & Suryani (2014:59), by using TSTS structure, students will get used to respecting others' opinions and they can express their opinions to others and they can increase their confidence in expressing ideas. Co-op co-op is developed by Robert E. Slavin (2005:229) who stated that co-op co-op is a familiar type of group investigation. This method places teams in a cooperation between one another to learn a topic in class. This method pushes the students to be active and cooperative in mastering the material. Co-op co-op model gives chances for students to work in small groups by learning and finishing some tasks to increase their comprehension. Then it gives chance for the students to share their new comprehension with their friends. According to Kagan & Kagan (2009:17.10), using co-op co-op can increase students' comprehension about themselves and the world, and it can give chances for them to share their new viewpoint to others. This model's goal is for the students to be able to be cooperative in finding a concept and its usage can lead them to be active in discussion, Q&A, finding answers and explaining the materials. Based on those explanations, the researchers intend to conduct a classroom action research with the title “The Implementation Of The Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS) Learning Model And Co-Op Co-Op For The Improvement Of Students' Learning Outcome In The Crafts And Entrepreneurship Subject (A Study in the Tenth Grade Students of Marketing Class SMK PGRI Sooko Mojokerto)”.
According to the background, the problem that can be formulated from this research is: (1) How can TSTS and co-op co-op learning model be implemented in the Crafts And Entrepreneurship Subject in the Tenth Grade Students of Marketing Class SMK PGRI Sooko Mojokerto?, (2) Can the implementation of those models improve the learning outcome of the Crafts And Entrepreneurship Subject in the Tenth Grade Students of Marketing Class SMK PGRI Sooko Mojokerto?, (3) What are the obstacles that happen in the implementation of those models in the Crafts And Entrepreneurship Subject in the Tenth Grade Students of Marketing Class SMK PGRI Sooko Mojokerto?
The type of research used here is Classroom Action Research (CAR) because it is done in classrooms to give certain activities so that it can improve classroom learning. CAR attempts to explore the phenomena, symptoms, or information that appear in places where schools can get alternative improving variant and practical phenomena support. This research is a CAR because its implementation requires the presence of the researchers in the field as the ones who plan the activities, conduct the activities, be the observers, interviewers, data collectors, data analyzers, and the ones who submit the results. In the implementation of CAR, the researcher cooperated with the subject teacher and two colleagues who did the observations. This research is done in SMK PGRI Sooko Mojokerto in the class of marketing in the tenth grade school year 2016/2017 comprising of 40 students, 16 males, and 24 females. The collected data in this CAR is the data regarding the cognitive learning outcome with the usage of those models in the craft and entrepreneurship field of textile waste and the cultivation and marketing of decorating plants using those learning models.
The kind of data used is qualitative because it is in the form of words and actions. While the data source is the literature and field data. literature data is the data gotten from books, field observations, archives and other documents related to the research subject. While field data is the data gotten from interviews and observations. Literature data source is from UM central library, FE department library, and from other places that provide the data suitable for the researchers' needs. The data gotten from literature review have to support the books used as learning material. Other than that, the literature review is also collected from research result in the form of journals that contain the usage of TSTS and Co-op co-op learning models that improve the learning outcome. The research data is collected through interviews, documentation, observation, tests/tasks, and field notes.
Data analysis is started from the beginning until the end of the research. The data is then processed and reported. The data in the forums of sentences or words are analyzed and concluded. The steps in data analysis are the data reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The following is the overview of the research procedure of CAR:
Based on picture 1 above, every cycle consists of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. In the second cycle, every step is the same as the first one, but for the second one, it is done to decrease the deficiency of the first cycle. The learning model syntax for TSTS and co-op co-op is as follows:
Based on the actions done in the implementation of TSTS and co-op co-op, the result of first and second cycle observation regarding teacher and student activities can be seen in table 1 and 2 below:
|Cycle I||Cycle II|
|First Meeting||Second Meeting||First Meeting||Second Meeting|
|Cycle I||Cycle II|
|First Meeting||Second Meeting||First Meeting||Second Meeting|
The second table is based on to know the teacher activity using observation sheet of teacher activity and the table 3 uses activity observation sheet for students. The learning outcome of the students is seen from the pre-test and post-test scores before and after the implementation of the TSTS and co-op models. The recapitulation of the student learning outcome of the first and second cycle can be seen from table 4 as follows:
|Pre Test||Post Test||Pre Test||Post Test|
During the implementation of TSTS and co-op co-op learning model, the researchers acted as the model teacher. This research is done in two cycles and every cycle comprises fo two meetings. In each cycle, there are several indicators that have to be done by the teacher to know the activities of the students. In the initial step, teachers say their greetings and check the presence. Teachers also motivate and give the rule of the fame and confirm the time limit for each action. Teachers divide the students into some groups and students from groups of 4-5 students.
In the main activity, teachers five explanation regarding the related tasks with the learning material that can get the initial information out of the students. Each group gets a topic from the teacher to be discussed and each group will distribute the task between the members. After doing the task, each group will present the result of their work to the groups and will discuss together. Furthermore, two members will go to other groups to note the information from the visited groups, while the two remaining members will distribute the result of the work to the guests. After discussing, the guest will return to their own groups and discuss the information gotten from other groups and present their comprehension in front of the class. In the closing, the teacher will give out questions that the students have to answer and then the material to be concluded. Finally, the teacher will close the session.
The implementation of TSTS and co-op co-op on the first cycle still has some deficiency from the teachers who still cannot manage the class well so the researchers continue on to the second cycle. From the observation report of teaching activity suitability and student activity sheet, the implementation is done well. This can be known from the average success percentage of the teacher activity in the first cycle of 86,7% with category excellent “A” and improves in the second cycle with the means of 94,43% also with the excellent category “A”. This fact signifies the deficiency in the first cycle has been improved in the second cycle. While the student activity observation sheet improves by 6,24% from the means of the first cycle from 72,34% to 78,58%.
According to table 4 and 5, it is known that after the implementation of the aforementioned models, the students' learning outcome experiences improvement. On the first cycle, the students; learning outcome is not optimal because the means is only 69,92 and the learning success percentage only shows that 60,76% of the students achieved scores higher than the minimum passing grade. While in the second cycle, the means of the learning outcome improves into 72,85 and the study success percentage becomes 72,44%.
The obstacles that happened and the solutions to solve them in the implementation of the said methods are: (1) there are several students who disturb the class when moving between groups and the teachers should be able to discipline them by giving firm monitoring and being strict, (2) many students still cheat when the teachers give them tests and the teachers should have done more firm guidance while doing the tests, (3) in the class discussion, students are not yet used to giving questions, opinions, and objections and the teachers should have given more chaces for each group to prepare questions for each presenting groups in the class.
The conclusions from this research are: (1) the implementation of TSTS and co-op learning model is suitable enough with the planned teaching outline, (2) the implementation can improve the students' learning outcome, (3) the implementation of those models can have some obstacles, one of which is that the students are not used to give questions, opinions, or objections in the class discussion so that the teachers should give each and every group their own chance in speaking up in the classroom presentation.
Based on the result of the implemented research, the suggestion given by hte researchers to the relevant parties are: (1) subject teachers of crafts and entrepreneurship and other teachers should use TSTS and co-op co-op so that the learning outcome of the students can improve, (2) the students shouls get used to doing their tasks individually and speaking out in discussions, (3) future researchers who want to do research on the same topic should be able to allocate their time beeter and more planned because in the main activity the students have to have more time in finishing their individual tasks.