Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as an individual employee's reaction to the particular dimension of his job role. The more aspects of the job that suits the individual's desire, the higher the level of perceived satisfaction, and vice versa . Several factors that affect job satisfaction according to Baron and Greenberg (1990: 164) include factors related to individual characteristics of employees, such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, stress levels, seniority and self-monitoring. Luthans (1998: 132) reveals two relevant concepts to discuss self-concept is self-efficacy and self-esteem.
Each of these must have a concept of self-being. Through self-concept, an individual will evaluate himself/herself about his / her strengths and weaknesses so that he/she will act and behave better in using the advantages that exist within himself and will strive to correct the shortcomings so that it can succeed in carrying out the task.
Self-efficacy is very necessary for an employee because there is a belief in the ability to complete the task given and it comes from the employee. Ivancevich, et al (2006: 97) states self-efficacy relates to personal beliefs about competence and self-ability. Specifically, it refers to one's belief in the ability to accomplish a task successfully.
If self-efficacy is an assessment of the ability and confidence in completing tasks that have been determined so as to achieve employee job satisfaction, then self-esteem is also important things that must be considered by the company because it is the individual characteristics that exist in each self-employee who can achieve employee job satisfaction.
Self-esteem is a self-esteem based on self-evaluation as a whole (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2005: 165). The feelings of self-esteem are formed by our circumstances and how others treat us. Self-esteem has clear implications for organizational behavior. Self-esteem in organizations is called organization-based self-esteem (OBSE), which is defined as an individual's self-assessment as a member of an organization acting within an organizational context (Luthans, 2006: 230).
Self-esteem describes a person's feelings about his or her own worth or thinks of himself as a worthy person. This particular consideration comes from all thoughts, feelings, emotions, and experiences throughout one's life. Companies should always consider self-esteem and job satisfaction as two important elements in the employee. Gaining a sense of security, feelings of self-respect, feelings of acceptance, feelings capable of competence, and awards earned from employees and the work environment also improve the ability is one important factor in creating self-esteem in employees.
Individuals with low self-esteem exhibit symptoms such as physical complaints, depression, anxiety, decreased health, attributes of their defeat to others, job dissatisfaction and performance degradation, and interpersonal problems .
Therefore self-efficacy, self-esteem, and job satisfaction are very important from several points of view. Self-efficacy and job satisfaction play an important role in improving self-confidence that affects work results, and self-efficacy can lead employees to feelings of satisfaction with their work because of their self-confidence to complete their tasks and responsibilities in their work. Self-esteem and job satisfaction also play an important role in improving the organization's psychological climate, and self-esteem can lead employees to their job satisfaction.
Ren and Chade (2017) stated that self-efficacy mediates the influence of ethical leadership on job satisfaction in China. Reilly et al (2014) showed different results in teachers, where self-efficacy did not affect job satisfaction. Meanwhile, Yakin and Erdil (2012) in his research found that self-efficacy affects the satisfaction of the work of certified public accountants. Kilapong (2013) states that self-efficacy and self-esteem affect employee satisfaction PT Tropica Cocoprima Manado.
PT GarudaFood is one of the leading beverage food producers in Indonesia. With its flagship product Kacang Garuda has received numerous awards including Indonesian Customer Satisfaction Award (ICSA) eight times in succession (2000-2007), Superbrands (2003), Top Brand for Kids (2004), Indonesian Best Brand Award (IBBA, 2004-2007), and Top Brand (2007-2012). Achievements achieved by the company cannot be far away from the essence of employee job satisfaction. Based on the above background, this research is important to describe the partial influence of self-efficacy and self-esteem on employee job satisfaction of PT GarudaFood, especially at the division of HCS which is core division of the company.
Based on the level of explanation, this type of research includes the type of causal associative research. This study examines the influence between self-efficacy and self-esteem on employee job satisfaction. The population used is permanent employees in the division of HCS (Human Capital Service) in PT. GarudaFood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik which amounted to 81 employees. The sample is determined by simple random sampling technique, based on the calculation of Slovin formula obtained 67 respondents. Questionnaires distributed as many as 67 copies and who returned to the researchers as many as 53 questionnaires so that obtained samples in this study as much as 53 respondents. The type of data used is primary data and secondary data. Source of data used primary data is the perception and self-assessment of employees in the division of HCS (Human Capital Service) at PT. GarudaFood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik and secondary data is obtained through company documents and official website PT.GarudaFood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik (www.garudafood.com). Data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis. Before multiple regression analysis, first classical assumption test consisted of normality test, multicollinearity test, and heteroscedasticity test.
The equations of multiple linear regression analysis obtained are as follows:
Y = Job satisfaction
α = Constants
β_1 = Self efficacy variable regression coefficient
β_2 = regression coefficient of self-esteem variable
X_1 = Self efficacy
X_2 = Self esteem
e = Standard error
Hypothesis test using statistical t-test with a significance level of 0.05 with the help of SPSS program for Windows version 23. The t-test is done in two ways: 1) compare the value of t-arithmetic with t-table; 2) compare the probability value (Sig) to the magnitude of alpha (α).
Results of Classic Assumption Test
Normality test results in graph analysis show spots spread around the diagonal line and its distribution follow the direction of the diagonal line. This proves that the regression model meets the assumption of normality.
Multicollinearity test results showed self-efficacy and self-esteem has a tolerance value of 0.476, the value is more than 0.1 and VIF value of 2.099 less than 10. Therefore it can be concluded that there is no multicollinearity among variables in the regression model in this study.
|1||Self Efficacy||,476||2,099||No multicollinearity|
|2||Self Esteem||, 476||2,099||No multicollinearity|
The result of the heteroscedasticity test on the scatterplot graph illustrates the spreading dots randomly, not collecting above or below and not forming a distinct clear pattern. The pattern shows homoscedasticity or no heteroscedasticity on the regression model so that the regression model in this study is feasible to use.
Results of Multiplied-Linear Regression Analysis
Results of multiple linear regression analysis of self-efficacy and self-esteem influence on employee job satisfaction in this study are shown in table 1.
Results of Hypotheses Test
The results of hypothesis 1 and hypothesis 2 can be illustrated in table 2.
|Independent Variable (X)||Dependent Variable (Y)||T||Sig.||Level of significance||Hypotheses|
|Self Efficacy (X1)||Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan||4.416||.000||0.05||H is rejected|
|Self Esteem (X2)||3.704||.001||0.05||H is rejected|
|(Source: Rejected Data)|
Based on the result of multiple regression analysis and hypothesis test, it can be explained that self-efficacy and self-esteem variable have the positive and significant effect on job satisfaction of HCS division of PT.Garudafood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik.
The Effects of Self Efficacy towards Employee's Work Satisfaction
Based on the result of a hypothesis test, it is known that self-efficacy have the positive and significant effect on job satisfaction of HCS division employees in PT.Garudafood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik. This means that the higher level of self-efficacy of employees, the higher the job satisfaction.
In the perspective of social cognitive theory, humans are not only driven by forces within themselves, or automatically formed and controlled by external stimuli. More precisely, the human function is described in the reciprocal relationship between behavior and cognitive (personal) and environmental factors . Therefore, self-efficacy is believed to be the key to doing the job successfully. In addition, self-efficacy can also affect the mindset and behavior of a person when making decisions.
Individuals with higher self-efficacy scores have higher job satisfaction, and in turn, this high level of job satisfaction influences an increase in employee behavior.
Self-efficacy has been formed in the employees of the division of HCS in PT. GarudaFood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik, so that employees have confidence in him so that and employees can also complete the tasks that have been determined because there are activities from companies that support employees to be able to complete the task and with success which resulted in generating confidence in the individual to be able to solve it.
The activities of the company that supports the existence of training activities that support employees in the process to complete the work that has been determined, providing motivation and encouragement so that the belief in yourself to be able to complete the difficult task and effectively, with a briefing before starting to carry out the work. Based on interviews conducted by researchers that there are activities in the company every after work / every week to discuss problems that occur and solve them together. So if employees experience obstacles in the completion of their duties can be assisted by colleagues or supervisors. This makes the employees who lack self-efficacy in themselves can be assisted with the activities that exist in the company and colleagues who help so there is satisfaction in him in work because he felt the support that makes him feel able to do his job.
Judge and Bono (2001) mentioned that high self-efficacy will result in achievement of work performance and greater job satisfaction compared with low self-efficacy employees. This is because employees who have high confidence will be able to complete the work.
The higher self-efficacy will arise in the optimistic sense of self that tends to interpret events in life through a positive perspective and associated with better outcomes. In general, the success in doing the tasks that have been given by the company will increase confidence in the personal efficacy, but the failure of employees in completing the work that is marked by not on target and cannot complete in accordance with the specified, it can lower the self-efficacy in the employee. The level of the employee's self in the face of efficacy varies depending on how the personal and situational contributions are interpreted so that the behavior of the employee.
These results are in accordance with research conducted by Ren and Chade (2017) on employees in China, Erdil and Yakin (2012) on public accountants in Turkey, Srinadi and Netra (2014), Gunaputri and Suana (2016), Princess and Wibawa (2016), Parasara and Surya (2016), and Salangka and Dotulong (2015) to employees of government-owned companies in Indonesia. This result, however, contradicts Reilly et al (2014) to teachers in Ireland.
The Effects of Self Esteem towards Employee's Work Satisfaction
The result of hypothesis test shows that self-esteem has positive effect on employee job satisfaction. This means that the higher self-esteem owned by employees, the more increasing job satisfaction on the employees of the division of HCS at PT. GarudaFood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik.
Individuals who have strong self-esteem will be able to foster better relationships with others, be polite, and make himself a successful person . A person who feels so valuable and meaningful tends to do his best in every task and responsibility, both as a member of the organization and as an individual (Engko, 2008: 5). In the individual, self-esteem judges itself as a perception of the response given by its external environment. If the individual feels good social interaction from his environments such as colleagues and superiors, then get success from the results of his work then the individual is in him feel accepted, needed, and precious also vice versa. Bagia (2015: 68) states that an employee who has self-esteem within himself is a highly esteemed individual who believes that has more ability to succeed at his job and is better prepared to take risks in work. Salangka and Dotulong (2015: 570) argue that employees who feel valued by the company for their work will tend to have the motivation to work, have better physical and mental health in the work provided so that this makes employees will feel satisfied at work. Muchlas (2012: 92) also states that employees with low self-esteem are more easily subject to outside influences than employees with high self-esteem and more dependent on acceptance of positive evaluations given by others. So it is not surprising that self-esteem has a relationship with job satisfaction, where those with high self-esteem are more satisfied with their work than employees with low self-esteem.
The results are in accordance with several studies of Salangka and Dotulong (2015: 571) and Kilapong (2013) which show that self-esteem has a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.
The results of this study indicate that employees in the company are the most important driving factor of the organization wheel within the company including the division of HCS (Human Capital Service) because the management of the company largely controlled by the division. Employees of HCS division (Human Capital Service) at PT.GarudaFood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik with high self-esteem and high job satisfaction do their job much better than with other employees, and thus can improve organizational control, which is beneficial to the organization. At the same time, employees will be happy to cooperate with each other, establish cooperation and develop relationships, it is certainly also beneficial for the company to realize the company's vision.
4. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
The conclusions of this research are 1) self-efficacy, self-esteem and job satisfaction of employee division HCS (Human Capital Service) in PT. GarudaFood Putra-Putri Jaya, Gresik is in the high category; 2) Self-efficacy has a significant positive effect on job satisfaction on HCS division employees (Human Capital Service) at PT.GarudaFood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik; 3) Self-esteem has a significant positive effect on employee job satisfaction of HCS division (Human Capital Service) at PT.GarudaFood Putra Putri Jaya, Gresik.
Because self-efficacy and self-esteem have an effect on to job satisfaction of employee, hence company need to maintain and keep employees to always have high self-confidence by giving coaching training (coaching) to work done by the employee. Companies need to give employees the confidence to make decisions about their work. Researchers then need to add to the division other than the division of HCS and are expected to develop research by adding other variables such as locus of control.