KnE Life Sciences | The UGM Annual Scientific Conference Life Sciences 2016 | pages: 281–287

, , and

1. Introduction

Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849) has proven to be a potential source of animal food protein [1]. They are prolific, required less feed, and the life expectancy is relatively longer (2 yr to 2.5 yr) than domestic fowl [2]. They mature in about six weeks and are usually in full egg production by 50 d with production up to 200 eggs to 300 eggs in their first year of lay [2]. Many studies showed that quail could easily adapt to commercial management conditions [3]. Quail meat and eggs are renowned for their high quality of protein, high biological value and low caloric content [4].

In Japanese quail farming, comparatively higher nutritional requirement, poor feed efficiency, short supply of ingredients, and an increase in prices of most of the feed ingredients result in high cost of production [5]. The high cost and unavailability of the conventional feed ingredients have led to the search for alternative (unconventional) sources of protein and energy. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans [6]. Hatchery waste is primarily composed of dead chicks, infertile whole eggs, and shells from hatched eggs [7]. This material is usually incinerated, rendered, or taken to landfills [8]. The high moisture content of fresh waste makes disposal and incineration costly and it may be unsafe environmentally [8,9].

Hatchery waste has a good nutrient content, for example 36.2 % crude protein, 23.9 % ether extracts, 0.9 % crude fiber, 25.1 % ash, 2795.2 kcal · kg -1 metabolizable energy (ME), 25.62 % calcium and 1.47 % phosphorus [5,10]. Therefore, hatchery waste can be used as a source of protein, energy and calcium and phosphorus [11]. Protein from hatchery waste has a high biological value and digestibility, and the amino acids balance of hatchery waste is better than fishmeal and other animal protein sources [11–13]. Hatchery waste meal (HWM) is cheaper and profitable than soybean meal and fish [14].

Several studies have been conducted to examine the hatchery waste utilization in poultry. Replacement of fishmeal up to 100 % with hatchery waste meal did not affect feed intake, egg weight and feed conversion of quails [5]. Several other authors also conducted similar observations using poultry hatchery waste in laying hens [15]. The replacement of fishmeal with whole or shells hatchery waste meal in isoprotein diets did not affect feed intake but increased egg production and egg weight [16]. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of hatchery waste meal on production performance of quails.

2. Materials and Methods

Preparation of hatchery waste meal

Hatchery waste was obtained from Oxsy Jaya Farm, located in Gedongan, Colomadu, Karanganyar, Indonesia. Hatchery waste meal consisted of the shell, infertile eggs, and unhatched eggs. Hatchery waste was divided into two types of waste: whole hatchery waste meal (WHWM) and shells hatchery waste meal (SHWM). The WHWM was obtained from hatchery waste of the hatching process as a whole, whereas SHWM obtained from whole hatchery waste reduced by eggshell from hatched eggs. The hatchery waste was boiled at 100 C for 15 min with a ratio of water and hatchery waste of 2 : 1. Then it was kept in ambient temperature for 12 h to 14 h. The boiled waste was moved into the filters for 10 min to 15 min and milled using a diskmill thereafter. The HWM was then oven-dried at 60 C for 24 h [17].

Management of experimental birds

Five hundred 30 d.o female Japanese quails obtained from Karanganyar with an average initial body weight of of 94.75 g ± 4.17 g were used for this study. The quails were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with five replicates containing twenty quails. The dietary treatments were: P0 = basal ration; P1 = 96 % basal ration + 4 % WHWM, P2 = 92 % basal ration + 8 % WHWM, P3 = 96 % basal ration + 4 % SHWM, P4 = 92 % basal ration + 8 % SHWM.

The research was conducted in two stages, adaptation and treatment. The adaptation is performed at the age of 30 d until the egg production 10 % in order to adapt to the environment, cages, and ration. It is expected that feed intake and egg production can be uniform. The quails were given ration twice a day, at 07:00 and 13:30. The commercial ration was given from the age 30 d to 39 d. At the age 40 d to 41 d the quails were adapted to the basal ration (Table 1) with a ratio of 50 % commercial ration and 50 % basal ration. The basal ration was given from the age of 42 d until 10 % egg production. The treatment rations (Table 2) were given thereafter, for 28 d.

Table 1

The composition and nutrient content of basal ration.


Ingredient Proportion (%)
Corn 45.45
Rice bran 18.56
Soybean meal 20.05
Fishmeal 6.75
Coconut oil 1.25
dl-methionine 0.05
Dikalsium fosfat 1.50
Limestone 5.80
Premiks 0.25
NaCl 0.25
Table 2

Composition and nutrient content of experimental rations.


Components Treatments
P0 P1 P2 P3 P4
Basal diet (%) 100 96 92 96 92
Whole hatchery waste meal (%) 0 4 8 0 0
Shells hatchery waste meal (%) 0 0 0 4 8
Nutrient content
Metabolizable energy (kcal · kg -1 ) 2 800.00 2 789.03 2 777.98 2 841.62 2 882.88
Crude protein (%) 18.00 18.50 19.00 18.86 19.71
Crude fat (%) 1.75 2.57 3.38 2.86 3.96
Cude fiber (%) 4.97 4.94 4.92 4.92 4.87
Crude ash (%) 5.08 7.13 9.16 6.27 7.46
Calcium (%) 3.40 4.24 5.07 3.64 3.88
Available phosphorus (%) 0.50 0.58 0.65 0.52 0.53
Lysine (%) 1.02 0.97 0.93 0.97 0.93
Methionine (%) 0.40 0.39 0.37 0.39 0.37

Data analysis

Performance data were analyzed by using analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effects, it was continued with orthogonal contrast test [18].

3. Result and Discussion

Feeding HWM improved the performance of quails (P < 0.05). Feed consumption increased with the increased in production and egg weight. It happened since the increase in production and egg weight requires nutrients such as energy and more protein [19]. Quails fed SHWM consume more ration than WHWM due to higher egg production, while quails fed WHWM 8 % consume ration more than WHWM 4 %, due to the relatively higher egg production (Table 3).

The SHWM improved egg production, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio than WHWM (Table 4). Khan and Bhatti stated that processed SHWM is rich in protein and essential amino acids compared to processed WHWM [13]. Feeding 8 % WHWM improved egg production compared with 4 % WHWM (P < 0.05), while feeding 8 % SHWM tended to improve egg production than 4 % SHWM (P = 0.09). The higher nutrients intake led to the increase in follicle number and development as well as egg weight [17,20].

Table 3

Performance of quails fed hatchery waste meal in the ration.


Treatments Feed intake (g /bird/day) Egg production (%) Egg weight (g) Feed conversion ratio Protein efficiency ratio
P0 24.71 68.70 9.46 3.80 1.46
P1 25.82 73.55 10.07 3.50 1.55
P2 26.10 77.91 10.19 3.33 1.60
P3 26.03 79.87 10.11 3.22 1.65
P4 26.24 83.24 10.33 3.06 1.66
P0 = basal ration; P1 = 96 % basal ration + 4 % WHWM; P2 = 92 % basal ration + 8 % WHWM; P3 = 96 % basal ration + 4 % SHWM; P4 = 92 % basal ration + 8 % SHWM.
Table 4

Results of orthogonal contrast test.


Feed Intake (g/bird/day) Egg Production (%) Egg Weight (g) Feed Conversion Ratio Protein Efficiency Ratio
P0 vs P1, P2, P3, P4 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
P1, P2 vs P3, P4 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.38 < 0.01 0.02
P1 vs P2 0.04 0.04 0.42 0.05 0.24
P3 vs P4 0.10 0.09 0.16 0.11 0.75
P0 = basal ration; P1 = 96 % basal ration + 4 % whole HWM; P2 = 92 % basal ration + 8 % whole HWM; P3 = 96 % basal ration + 4 % shells HWM, P4 = 92 % basal ration + 8 % shells HWM.

4. Conclusion

It can be concluded that HWM improved performance of quails, particularly 8 % shells HWM that showed the best response.

References

1 

Tunsaringkarn T, Tungjaroenchai W, Siriwong W. Nutrient benefits of quail (coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 2003;3:1–8. www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0513/ijsrp-p1729.pdf

2 

Smith A. Poultry (the tropical agriculturist). Revised edition. Macmillan Education, London, 2000. p.123–158. https://www.amazon.com/Poultry-tropical-agriculturalist-Anthony-Smith/dp/0333791495

3 

Paulillo AC, Schmidt EM, Denadal J, Lima FS, Dorretto L. Experimental vaccination against Newcastle disease in Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica). Clinical and Immunological parameters. International Journal of Poultry Science 2009; 8(1):52–54. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2009.52.54

4 

Haruna ES, Musa U, Lommon LH, Tat PM, Shamaki PD, Okewole P, Molokwu JU. Introduction of quail production in Nigeria. Veterinary Journal 1997;18:104–107. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19990103910

5 

Shatishkumar A, Prabakaran R. Recycling of Japanese quail hatchery waste on egg production performance of quail breeders. Journal Veterinary and Animal Sciences 2008;4:123–128. http://www.tanuvas.tn.nic.in/tnjvas/tnjvas/vol4(4)/123-128.pdf

6 

Alao BO, Falowo AB, Chulayo A, Muchenje V. The potential of animal by-products in food systems: Production, prospects and challenges. Sustainability 2017;9:1–18. http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/7/1089/pdf

7 

Hamm D, Whitehead WK. Holding techniques for hatchery wastes. Poultry Science 1982;61:1025–1028. https://academic.oup.com/ps/article-abstract/61/6/1025/1566100?redirectedFrom=PDF

8 

Miller BF. Extruding hatchery waste. Poultry Science 1984;63:1284–1286. https://academic.oup.com/ps/article-abstract/63/6/1284/1516760?redirectedFrom=PDF

9 

Vanderpopuliere JM, Kanungo HK, Walton HV, Cotterill OJ. Broiler and egg type chick hatchery by-product meal evaluated as laying hen feedstuffs. Poultry Science 1977; 56(4):1140–1144. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270068846_Broiler_and_Egg_Type_Chick_Hatchery_By-Product_Meal_Evaluated_as_Laying_Hen_Feedstuffs

10 

Mehdipour M, Shargh MS, Dastar B, Hassani S. Effect of different level of hatchery waste on the performance, carcass and tibia ash and some blood parameters in broiler chicks. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 2009;12:1272–1276. http://scientificfinding.gau.ac.ir/pages-931.html

11 

Lilburn MS, Barbour GW, Nemasetoni R, Coy C, Werling W, Yersin AG. Protein quality and calcium availability from extruded and autoclaved turkey hatchery residue. Poultry Science 1997;76:841–848. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9181617

12 

Rasool S, Rehan M, Haq A, Alam MZ. Preparation and nutritional evaluation of hatchery waste meal for broilers. Asian-Australasian Journal Animal Science 1999;12:554–557. https://www.ajas.info/journal/view.php?number=19430

13 

Khan SH, Bhatti BM. Effect of autoclaving, toasting and cooking on chemical composition of hatchery waste meal. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 2001;21:22–26. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=DJ2012040537

14 

Shahriar HA, Nazer-Adl K, Doolgarisharaf J, Monirifar H. Effect of dietary different levels of hatchery waste in broiler. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2008; 7(1):100–105. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26590102_Effects_of_Dietary_Different_Levels_of_Hatchery_Wastes_in_Broiler

15 

Tadtiyanant C, Lyons JJ, Vandepopuliere JM. Extrusion processing used to convert dead poultry, feathers, eggshells, hatchery waste and mechanically deboned residue into feedstuffs for poultry. Poultry Science 1993; 72(8):1515–1527. https://academic.oup.com/ps/article-abstract/72/8/1515/1531338

16 

Odunsi AA, Akinwumi AO, Falana OI. Replacement value of hatchery waste meal for fishmeal in the diet of laying Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). International Food Research Journal 2013;20:3107–3110. http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/20

17 

Alaba O, Ekeocha AH. Replacement value of fishmeal by poultry hatchery waste meal in the diets of pullet growers and layers. Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2012;1:7–13. http://www.sjournals.com/index.php/SJAs/article/view/6

18 

Gaspersz V. Teknik analisis dalam penelitian percobaan. [Analysis Techniques in Experimental Research]. Tarsito, Bandung; 1995. p.140–145. [in Bahasa Indonesia]. http://library.fip.uny.ac.id/opac/index.php?p=show_detail&id=3533

19 

National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th ed. The National Academies Press, Washington, 1994. p.22. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/2114/nutrient-requirements-of-poultry-ninth-revised-edition-1994

20 

Keshavarz K. Effects of reducing dietary protein, methionine, choline, folic acid and vitamin B12 during the late stages of the egg production cycle on performance and eggshell quality. Poultry Science 2003; 82(9):1407–1414. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 10574101_Effects_of_reducing_dietary_protein_methionine_choline_folic_acid_and_vitamin_B12 _during_the_late_stages_of_the_egg_production_cycle_on_performance_and_eggshell_quality

FULL TEXT

Statistics

  • Downloads 5
  • Views 42

Navigation

Refbacks



ISSN: 2413-0877