KnE Life Sciences | The UGM Annual Scientific Conference Life Sciences 2016 | pages: 271–280

, , , , , and

1. Introduction

Kacang Goats are one of local goats in Central Java, Indonesia that is well adapted to the environmental condition, and prolific, therefore mostly reared by farmers in the village [1]. Solanki et al. [2] stated that goat can survive in limited availability of forages and harsh climatic condition. In fact, the price of Kacang Goats is less expensive because they have small in body size and are reared in traditional management system. Many efforts have been done to improve the productivity of Kacang Goats in Indonesia. Fish meal is protein source feeds containing relatively high ruminally undegradable protein. Crude protein of fish meal has been reported about 59.10 % to 65.40 % [3], 61.20 % to 83.70 % [4]. In addition, Stern et al. stated that fish meal contained 65.00 % ± 4.00 % of ruminally undegradable protein and 80.00 % ± 5.00 % of the ruminally undegradable protein that was digested in the intestine [5]. Soybean meal is also protein source of feed. Barchiesi-Ferrari and Anrique stated that soybean meal contains 58.01 % of crude protein [6]. However, the protein of soybean meal is highly degraded in the rumen, and the content of ruminally undegraded protein is only 25.00 % ± 3.00 % (22 % to 29 %) [5]. In fact, Addulah et al. reported that Kacang Goat preferred soybean meal concentrate compared to fish meal concentrate [3]. The soybean meal concentrate intake was 49.31 % of the total dry matter intake, while the fish meal concentrate intake was 44.52 % to 46.63 %. However, the average daily gain of goat fed concentrate containing fish meal (0.077 kg ± 0.076 kg to 0.102 kg ± 0.068 kg) was higher than those of goat fed soybean meal concentrate (0.070 kg ± 0.047 kg). Therefore, total mixed ration containing fish meal and soybean meal were used in this study to increase the edible portion of Kacang bucks.

Meat is the most valuable product of animals. Dave and Ghaly also stated that meat is preferable animal protein source [7]. In general, the need of meat tended to increase continuously [8]. Therefore, nowadays people has used by-product to make new edible desirable product for consumer [9]. Awan et al. stated that edible offals are included heart, liver, tongue, kidney, tails, tripe/stomach, spleen, Chitterlings, sweetbreads/pancreatic gland/thymus, intestine, rinds, lips, fats, testicles, trimmings, blood and certain bones” [9]. Goat pâté ingredients use blood and liver [10], smoke blood sausage was from blood, heart, kidneys, meat (trimmings), fat, and pig skin [11], goat “sarapatel” was made from blood and viscera [12]. In Indonesia, many kinds of recipes were made from by-products and desirable to consumers, such as: “sambal goreng” (liver), “asem-asem” (kidney, meat trimmings, and testicles), curry and “thengkleng” (viscera and meat trimming), “tongseng” (tongue, eyes, ears, meat trimming from head, cheek), soup, or just fried them after being given seasoning. Therefore, in addition to carcass, edible portion of offal have to be calculated as profitable product. Meat by-products also contain valuable source of nutrients such as: essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins [13].

In fact, studies about edible portions of goats are still limited. This study has focused on edible portion of carcass and offal of Kacang buck fed total mixed ration containing fish meal and soybean meal.

2. Materials and Method

Twelve of yearling Kacang bucks (17.84 kg ± 1.57 kg) were arranged in Completely Randomized Design with three different treatments: NG (control) = natural grass, FM = total mixed ration containing fish meal and SBM = total mixed ration containing soybean meal (Table 1) [14]. The rations contained 15 % of crude protein, except for NG [14]. After being reared for 14 wk, the goats were slaughtered. Before being slaughtered, the goats were provided free access of fresh water and were fasted for 12 h to 15 h [14], and then were weight to get data of slaughter weight. Goats were slaughtered using standard commercial procedures [15], except that kidneys were included in the carcass. The hot carcass was weighed after bleeding, removing skin, head, fore feet (at the carpal-metacarpal joint), hind feet (at the tarsal-metatarsal joint), visceral (gastrointestinal tracts, liver, heart, spleen, pancreas) and abdominal fat, lungs and trachea, diaphragm, penis and testicles and also tail [16]. Non-carcass (offal) components were weighed separately and differentiate between the edible and non-edible offal.

Table 1

Ration composition and the nutrients content.


Feedstuffs / Nutrients NG FM SBM
Feed ingredients: —————– % —————–
Natural grass 100 0 0
Pennisetum purpureum 0 30 30
Gliricidia leave 0 30 30
Cassava waste product 0 20.10 19.20
Wheat bran 0 13.75 13.80
Fish meal 0 6.15 0
Soybean meal 0 0 7.00
Nutrients content in the rations:
Dry matter (%) 18.58 91.26 91.53
Ash (100 % dry matter) 12.06 10.41 10.11
Ether extract (100 % dry matter) 2.37 2.48 2.56
Crude Fibre (100 % dry matter) 34.62 29.68 29.18
Crude Protein (100 % dry matter) 10.92 15.26 15.59
Nitrogen free extract (100 % dry matter) 40.04 43.80 42.56
TDN (%) 63.23 56.21 57.95

Parameters observed were edible portion of carcass and offal. Edible portions of carcass were included meat, fat, and kidneys. Edible portions of offal were consisted of blood, brain, edible meat from head, eyes, ears, tongue, meat fragment and fat from tail, subcutaneous fat, meat fragment from feet, lungs and trachea, heart, weasand (oesophagus without the content), liver, spleen, tripe/stomach without the content, intestine without the content, pancreatic gland, diaphragm, and testicles. Data were analyzed by a one-way analysis of variance using the SPSS statistics software version 19.

3. Results and Discussions

About 18.82 kg to 26.62 kg of the goat slaughter weights produced 39.17 % to 52.06 % of carcasses (kidneys included in the carcass) and 47.94 % to 60.83 % of offal. The slaughter weight of SBM goats was the highest and produced the highest carcass weight and dressing percentage; while the slaughter weight, carcass weight, and dressing percentage of NG goats was similar to those of FM goats, but the dressing percentage and offal percent of FM goats were similar to those of SBM goats [14].

Carcass percentage of goat was varied depended on the body components of the carcass [17]. Pinkerton reported higher dressing percentages of slaughter goats (in the range of 45.00 % to 52.00 %) than in this study, because liver, heart, and kidney were included in the carcasses [17]. Yusuf et al. also reported that the dressing percentage of Boer goats were in the range of 43.90 % to 55.70 % because heart, liver, kidney, and lungs were included in the carcasses [18]. Das and Rajkumar stated relatively lower dressing percentage in Indian goat breeds (40.66 % to 45.14 %) than in this research, because the carcass was without kidneys [19]. Hutama reported that the dressing percentage of Kacang Goat (46.67 %) was relatively the same as this study [20].

Edible portion of carcass

Edible portion total of SBM carcass (9.67 kg) was higher (P < 0.01) than those of FM (7.07 kg) and NG carcass (6.56 kg). However, edible portion of the carcass (% of carcass weight) was similar among the treatments (Table 2). This indicated that heavier carcass produced more edible carcass. Edible carcass (% of slaughter weight) in the Table 2 shows that NG goat produced edible carcass (% of slaughter weight) lower (P < 0.05) than SBM goat did, but similar to FM goat, and those of FM goat did relatively the same as SBM goat. It can be concluded that SBM goat have produced the highest edible carcass (37.92 % of slaughter weight).

Table 2

Edible carcass.


Edible carcass NG FM SBM
Meat (kg) 5.71 A ± 0.56 6.40 A± 1.07 8.41 B± 0.74
Fat (kg) 0.68 Aa± 0.20 0.54 A± 0.04 1.02 Bb± 0.23
Kidneys (kg) 0.17 a ± 0.04 0.14 Aa± 0.04 0.25 Bb ± 0.03
Edible carcass total (kg) 6.56 A ± 0.71 7.07 A ± 1.09 9.67 B ± 0.74
% of carcass weight 77.72 ± 2.75 79.55 ± 1.88 80.94 ± 1.83
% of slaughter weight 31.71 a ± 1.86 34.19 ab± 2.48 37.92 b ± 3.76
A, B Means in the same row without common letter are different at P < 0.01
a, b Means in the same row without common letter are different at P < 0.05
Table 3

Edible offal.


Edible offal NG FM SBM
———————— kg ————————
Blood 0.984 ± 0.129 1.012 ± 0.228 1.053 ± 0.076
Brain 0.083 ± 0.015 0.090 ± 0.008 0.089 ± 0.011
Head cheek meat 0.335 ± 0.074 0.362 ± 0.069 0.362 ± 0.105
Eyes 0.043 ± 0.013 0.044 ± 0.011 0.044 ± 0.012
Ears 0.092 ± 0.017 0.094 ± 0.019 0.127 ± 0.023
Tongue 0.073 ± 0.012 0.067 ± 0.020 0.090 ± 0.045
Tail fat and meat 0.009 A ± 0.005 0.007 A ± 0.001 0.020 B ± 0.003
Subcutaneous fat 0.031 ± 0.010 0.021 ± 0.003 0.036 ± 0.019
Meat fragment from feets 0.068 a ± 0.014 0.071 ab ± 0.014 0.097 b ± 0.010
Lungs trachea 0.195 ± 0.029 0.206 ± 0.009 0.228 ± 0.031
Heart 0.117 ± 0.030 0.120 ± 0.002 0.147 ± 0.018
Weasand/esophagus netto 0.034 ± 0.005 0.038 ± 0.003 0.039 ± 0.002
Liver 0.283 a ± 0.020 0.337 ab ± 0.067 0.387 b ± 0.037
Spleen 0.026 ± 0.007 0.033 ± 0.010 0.030 ± 0.005
Tripe/stomach netto 0.700 ± 0.084 0.703 ± 0.178 0.801 ± 0.104
Intestine netto 0.559 ± 0.124 0.534 ± 0.120 0.516 ± 0.057
Pancreatic gland 0.028 ± 0.007 0.034 ± 0.005 0.027 ± 0.016
Diaphragm 0.065 ± 0.007 0.071 ± 0.011 0.082 ± 0.011
Testicles 0.167 ± 0.041 0.178 ± 0.029 0.206 ± 0.033
Edible offal total: 3.894 ± 0.348 4.022 ± 0.564 4.381 ± 0.306
(% of offal) 31.88 ± 2.74 34.23 ± 3.47 32.54 ± 5.25
(% of slaughter weight) 18.86 ± 1.31 19.48 ± 1.35 17.16 ± 1.44
A,B Means in the same row without common letter are different at P < 0.01
a,b Means in the same row without common letter are different at P < 0.05

Meat is the most valuable product of the carcass. Meat production of Kacang Goat in this study (Table 2) was higher than those reported by Sumardianto et al. was 3.34 kg (60.00 %) and Adiwinarti et al. was 3.57 kg (62.69 %) [21,22]. However, the fat component in this study (7.73 %) was lower than those in Sumardianto et al. research (9.70 %) [21]. The differences of carcass composition were influenced by the carcass weight [23], slaughter weight, and the feed nutrition [24].

Edible portion of offal

Edible portions total of offal was relatively similar among the treatments (NG: 3.89 kg, FM: 4.02 kg, SBM: 4.38 kg). Edible offal total, both in % of offal and % of slaughter weight was also no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the treatments (Table 3). Some edible offal (fat and meat from tail, liver, and meat fragments from feet) were significantly different among the treatments. Edible portion from tail of SBM goat was higher (P < 0.01) than those of NG and FM goat, but those of NG goat was the same as FM goat (P > 0.05). Liver and meat trimming from feet of NG goats was similar to FM goat, but lower (P < 0.05) than SBM goat; while those of FM goat was not different from SBM goat.

Spleen and liver of Kacang Goat in this study were lower than those of Indian goat breeds (Barbari, Marwari, and Jamunapari) as reported by Das and Rajkumar [19] that spleen was about 0.043 kg to 0.052 kg and liver was around 0.401 kg to 0.456 kg. However, spleen and liver weight of Ethiopian goat breeds (Afar, Long-eared Somali, the Central Highland goat) as reported by Sebsibe et al. [16] that were about 0.021 kg to 0.034 kg of spleen and 0.279 kg to 0.342 kg of liver were similar to this study. Gafar et al. [25] reported the spleen weights of Kacang Goat were 0.042 kg to 0.056 kg and the liver weights were 0.251 kg to 0.364 kg. Solanki et al. [2] reported that the weight of liver was influenced by management system. Testicles/genital organs of Kacang Goat in this study were bigger than Gafar et al. research (0.128 kg to 0.194 kg) [25] and the Indian goat breeds (0.143 kg to 0.149 kg) [19], but smaller than Ethiopian goats fed 50 % to 80 % of concentrate (0.144 kg to 0.230 kg) [16].

Edible offal total in this study was about 17.16 % to 19.48 % (Table 3). This result is higher than research reported Awan et al. that stated edible offal of ruminants around 12 % [9].

Edible portion total

Edible portion total of SBM goats was higher than those of FM (P < 0.05) and NG (P < 0.01) goats (Table 4). However, the percentage of edible portion total was similar among the treatments (P > 0.05). It means that the higher was the body weight, the more the edible portion total was. The percentage of edible carcass total was higher than those of edible offal total in all of the treatments. It can be concluded that the highest edible portion total was produced by SBM goat. It has been reported that SBM goat had the highest slaughter weight [14].

It can be concluded that the use of soybean meal in the ration can improve the edible portion of Kacang Goat's carcass better than fish meal did.

Table 4

Edible portion total.


NG FM SBM
Edible carcass total (kg) 6.56 A ± 0.71 7.07 A ± 1.09 9.67 B± 0.74
% of slaughter weight (%) 31.71 a± 1.86 34.19 ab ± 2.48 37.92 b ± 3.76
Edible offal total (kg) 3.89 ± 0.35 4.02 ± 0.56 4.38 ± 0.31
% of slaughter weight (%) 18.86 ± 1.31 19.48 ± 1.35 17.16 ± 1.44
Edible portion total (kg) 10.46 Aa ± 0.96 11.09 a ± 1.63 14.05 Bb± 1.03
% of slaughter weight (%) 50.57 ± 2.24 53.67 ± 3.65 55.08 ± 5.16
A,B Means in the same row without common letter are different at P < 0.01
a,b Means in the same row without common letter are different at P < 0.05

4. Conclusion

Total edible portion of carcass and offal with soybean meal was higher than fish meal and natural grass. Soybean meal in the ration can improve the edible portion of carcass and offal of Kacang Goats better than fish meal.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully appreciate to the Directorate of Higher Education, Ministry of Education, and the Republic of Indonesia for Research Grant “Penelitian Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi” [Honorable University Research] Universitas Gadjah Mada No. 693/UN-P III/LT/DIT-LIT/2016, March 1, 2016. Appreciation is also expressed to “Kacang Goats Research Team” that has assisted for data collection.

References

1 

Elieser S, Sumadi S, Budisatria GS, Subandriyo S. Productivity comparison between Boer and Kacang Goat dam. Journal of Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture 2012; 37(1):15–21. https://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/jitaa/article/view/7469

2 

Solanki CPS, Nanavati S, Nayak NK, Bhadoria HBS. Carcass traits of local goats under different managemental systems. Indian Journal Animal Sciences 2009;79(12):1277–1279. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289890361_Carcass_traits_of_local_goats_under_different_managemental_systems

3 

Addulah M, Kusmartono, Suyadi, Soebarinoto, Winugroho M. The effect of feeding local and imported fish meal on daily weight gain, sexual performance, and semen production of Kacang buck. Animal Production 2007;9(2):135–144. http://animalproduction.net/index.php/JAP/article/view/169

4 

Hartadi H, Reksohadiprodjo S, Tillman AD. Tabel komposisi pakan untuk indonesia [Feed composition table for Indonesia]. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta; 2005. p.80–81. [in Bahasa Indonesia]. http://ugmpress.ugm.ac.id/id/product/peternakan/tabel-komposisi-pakan-untuk-indonesia

5 

Stern MD, Bach A, Calsamiglia S. New Concepts in Protein Nutrition of Ruminants. Paper presented in: The 21 st Annual Southwest Nutrition Management Conference 2006. February 23–24, 2010. Tempe, Arizona.http://www.dairyweb.ca/Resources/SWNMC2006/Stern.pdf

6 

Barchiesi-Ferrari C, Anrique R. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein from moist dehulled lupin and extruded rapeseed meal. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 2011;71(3):430–436. https://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?cj11054

7 

Dave D, Ghaly AE. Meat spoilage mechanisms and preservation techniques: A critical review. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2011;6(4):486–510. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/76c0/6ffbcdc508a8ed0ca363c6a496bfb765304e.pdf

8 

Addis M. Major causes of meat spoilage and preservation techniques: A review. Food Science and Quality Management 2015;41:101–115. https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/FSQM/article/download/23880/24451

9 

Awan ZA, Tariq M, Muhammad AM, Satti NW, Mukhtar T, Akram W, et al. Edible by-products of meat. Veterinaria 2015;3(1):33–36. http://thesciencepublishers.com/veterinaria/files/v3i2-7-2015013.pdf

10 

Dalmas PS, Bezerra TKA, Morgano MA, Milani RF, Madruga MS. Development of goat pâté prepared with `variety meat'. Small Ruminant Research 2011;98(1–3):46–50. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921448811000915

11 

Silva FAP, Amaral DS, Guerra ICD, Dalmás PS, Arcanjo NMO, Bezerra TKA, et al. The chemical and sensory qualities of smoked blood sausage made with the edible by-products of goat slaughter. Meat Science 2013;94(1):34–38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23369952

12 

Brasil L, Queiroz A, Silva J, Bazerra T, Arcanjo N, Magnani M, et al. Microbiological and nutritional quality of the goat meat by-product `Sarapatel'. Molecules 2014;19:1047–1059. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24441654

13 

Toldrá F, Aristoy MC, Mora L, Reig M. Innovations in value-addition of edible meat by-products. Meat Science 2012;92(3):290–296. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0309174012001179

14 

Adiwinarti R, Kustantinah, Budisatria IGS, Rusman, Indarto E. Improving the performance of local Kacang Goats using ruminally undegradable protein feeds. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences 2016;10(4):262–267. https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ajas.2016.262.267

15 

Pratiwi NMW, Murray PJ, Taylor DG. Feral goats in Australia: A study on the quality and nutritive value of their meat. Meat Science 2007;75:168–177. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3a0d/2368fd6e0ad1c068a91ccba51fcb96de634c.pdf

16 

Sebsibe A, Casey NH, Van Niekerk WA, Tegegne A, Coertze RJ. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian goat breeds fed grainless diets varying in concentrate to roughage ratios. South African Society for Animal Science 2007;37(4):221–232. http://www.sasas.co.za/growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-three-ethiopian-goat-breeds-fed-grainless-diets

17 

Pinkerton F. Factor affecting goat carcass yield and quality. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture 2015 [Online] from http://www.goatworld.com/articles/purpose/factorsaffecting.shtml (2015) [Accessed on 1 July 2016].

18 

Yusuf AL, Goh YM, Samsudin AA, Alimon AR, Sazili AQ. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of Boer goats fed diets containing leaves or whole parts of Andrographis paniculata. Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Sciences 2014;27(4):503–510. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4093527/

19 

Das AK, Rajkumar V. Comparative study on carcass characteristics and meat quality of three Indian goat breeds. The Indian Journal of Animal Sci 2010;80(10):1014–1018. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232031626_Comparative_study_on_carcass _characteristics_and_meat_quality_of_three_Indian_goat_breeds

20 

Hutama YG. Persentase karkas dan komponen non karkas kambing kacang jantan akibat pemberian pakan dengan kadar protein dan energi yang berbeda. [The Percentage of Carcass and Non-carcass Component of Male Kacang Goats Fed with Defferent Levels of Protein and Energy,Thesis] Fakultas Peternakan dan Pertanian, Universitas Diponegoro (2014). p.iii–iv. [in Bahasa Indonesia]. http://eprints.undip.ac.id/42789/

21 

Sumardianto TAP, Purbowati E, Masykuri. Karakteristik karkas kambing Kacang, kambing Peranakan Ettawa, dan kambing Kejobong jantan pada umur satu tahun [Carcass characteristics of male Kacang, Ettawa crossbred, and Kejobong goat at one year old]. Animal Agriculture Journal 2013;2(1):175–182.[in Bahasa Indonesia]. https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/aaj/article/view/2145

22 

Adiwinarti R, Budisatria IGS, Kustantinah, Rusman. Carcass production and chevon quality of Kacang buck reared traditionally in Grobogan, Central Java, Indonesia. In:The 6 th International Seminar on Tropical Animal Production (ISTAP) “Integrated Approach in Developing Sustainable Tropical Animal Production 2015. Proceedings part I: 2015. Noviandi CT, Budhi SPS, Bachruddin Z, Utomo R, Widodo, Soeparno, et al. (eds.). p.694–698. https://repository.ugm.ac.id/id/eprint/273846/contents

23 

Never A. Some major factors affecting carcass composition in goats. Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2015;4(7):81–88. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20153359459

24 

Soeparno. Ilmu Nutrisi dan Gizi Daging [Meat science and nutrition]. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta; 2011. p.4–5. [in Bahasa Indonesia]. http://ugmpress.ugm.ac.id/id/product/peternakan/ilmu-nutrisi-dan-gizi-daging

25 

Gafar AA, Alimon AR, Sazili AQ, Man YC, Abubakr AR. Effect of varying levels of palm oil decanter cake on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Kacang Goats. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 2013;3(4):24–29. https://bahri.edu.sd/colleges_centres/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/2017/03/D0342429.pdf

FULL TEXT

Statistics

  • Downloads 3
  • Views 6

Navigation

Refbacks



ISSN: 2413-0877