South Sea Pearl Shell Quality Inspection Using X–Ray Digital Radiography


South sea pearl from Indonesia has been prominent in the sea pearl world market. The south sea pearls are produced from shells, Pinctada maxima ( Jameson, 1901). However, the quality of the south sea pearl of Indonesia commonly unspecified so that they are sold in bulk quantity to the world market. One of the problems is that due to lack of inspection technology access in order to define the sea pearl quality. The production of good quality sea pearls need a series of treatment for the shell. The process also takes a long time, about 2 yr to 3 yr. This paper presents in developing inspection technology using digital X-ray radiography and the way to define the dimension in correlation with its age. More specific is trying to distinguish the influence of culture period to the dimension of the sea pearl inside the shell. The existence of the sea pearl and its dimension are defined based on the digital radiography images. From the experiment, it is found the dimension of the sea pearl is dependent on the culture period.

Keywords: Digital radiography, Pearls, Pinctada maxima ( Jameson, 1901), Quality control, X-ray inspection

[1] Bondad-Reantaso MG, McGladdery SE, Ladra D, Chongming W, Berthe FCJ. Pearl oyster health: Experiences from the Philippines, China, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, in Bondad-Reantaso MG, McGladdery SE, Berthe FCJ. Pearl oyster health management: a manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper: Paper No. 503. FAO Rome; 2007. p. 111–121.;jsessionid= 3F2B1E0DACFDA675650BDCD90D5D5699?request_locale=es&recordID= XF2016022877&sourceQuery=&query=&sortField=&sortOrder=&agrovocString=

[2] Kripa V, Mohamed KS, Appukuttan KK, Velayudhan TS. Production of Akoya pearls from the Southwest coast of India. Aquaculture. 2007; 262: 347–354. https://www.

[3] Hänni HA, Kiefert L, Giese P. X-ray luminescence, a valuable test in pearl identification. Journal of Gemmology. 2005; 30: 325–329. 2005_Haenni_X_ray_luminescence_a_valuable_test_in_pearl_identification.pdf

[4] Krzemnicki M S, Friess SD, Chalus P, Hänni HA, Karampelas S. X-ray computed microtomography: Distinguishing natural pearls from beaded and non-beaded cultured pearls. Gems & Gemology. 2010; 46(2): 128–134.

[5] Nagai K, Hiramatsu J, Iwahashi. Method for non-destructive judgment of pearl quality. United Stated Patent Application Publication; 2012. com/patent/US20120050526

[6] Suparta GB, Louk AC, Kurniasari H, Wiguna GA. The use of X-ray micro-digital radiography for clay material inspection. Proc. of SPIE 9234, International Confeerence on Experimental Mechanics 2013 and Twelfth Asian Conference on Experimental Mechanics; 2014.

[7] Guenther J, Southgate PC, de Nys R. The effect of age and shell size on accumulation of fouling organisms on the Akoya pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Gould). Aquaculture. 2006; 253: 366–373. pii/S0044848605005260

[8] Iwai T, Takahashi M, Ido A, Miura C, Miura T. Effect of gender on Akoya pearl quality. Aquaculture. 2015; 437: 333–338. S0044848614006516

[9] McDougall C, Moase P, Degnan BM. Host and donor influence on pearls produced by the silver-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima. Aquaculture. 2016; 450: 313–320. https: //

[10] Pranesh Kishore P, Southgate PC. The effect of different culture methods on the quality of round pearls produced by the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture. 2016; 451: 65–71. science/article/pii/S0044848615301502