KnE Life Sciences | The 1st Payung Negeri International Health Conference | pages: 103– 109

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1. Introduction

Psychological changes have actually occurred during pregnancy. Near labor time, the feeling of happiness and anxious is mixed into one. The feeling of pleasure arise because the change of role into being a mother and looking forward to meet the long-awaited baby. The emergence of anxiety arises because of the worry about the health of the baby [3].

Some periods of psychological change that will occur include the Talking In period where dependency and focus is on themselves, the Taking Hold period in this phase which is the mother feels a concern for the inability to care for her baby, the Letting Go period in this phase which is the mother has accepted her new role as a parent. One of the psychological factor that can increase the risk of postpartum depression [5] is low self-esteem, adaptability, and lack of parental knowledge, in addition to the problems which is often experienced by postpartum mothers, such as lack of support or the role of husband to wife, and emotional and social stress due to lack of support provided by the family. Factors that influence the risk of postpartum depression include obstetric complications, a history of birth with Caesar, unwanted and unplanned pregnancy, and breastfeeding or breastfeeding to the baby [2].

The most important support for mother is the role of the husband, because one of the roles of the husband in the family is to maintain the health of the wife after giving birth, namely by giving love to his wife so that the wife feels cared, accompanying her for health control, encouraging her for nutritious food, adequate rest, personal care hygiene [1] and provides support appreciation, in the form of praise or assessment to postpartum mothers, and instrumental support in the form of helping care for babies.

The absence of husband's support for postpartum mothers will cause the mother to feel unnoticed and depressed. The pressure felt by postpartum if left to drag on will impose stress on the mother, so that it can lead to negative attitudes and unfavorable behavior such as not wanting to eat, refusing to check health regularly, and having a negative impact on her health [9].

From the survey at the Arifin Achmad Hospital, the 2017 data of postpartum mothers were gotten from 825 people, and the data for the last 1 month of January 2018 were gotten from 49 people. The results of interviews conducted with 5 respondents were 3 respondents (60%) said that they received less attention from their families or husbands for various reasons including husbands' busy with work. Meanwhile, 2 respondents (40%) said that sometimes husbands help to taking care the babies when there is free time and give encouragement and attention. Then 3 out of 5 of that respondent said that they were having trouble sleeping, feeling anxious and eager to get attention from her husband and family.

2. Methods and Equipment

Methods

The research type was quantitative, correlation design with cross sectional approach, with independent variables was the role of the husband and the dependent variable was psychological adaptation of post partum mothers. The population in this study was all postpartum mothers in Camar 1 Arifin Achmad Hospital Riau Province with the number of postpartum mothers based on the average monthly data of 49 people. The sampling technique used accidental, which is a sampling technique in a way that happens to be at the time of the study.

Equipment

The research tool was in the form of questionnaires made by researchers based on existing theories and tested in their validity and reliability in Petalabumi Hospital Pekanbaru. For the husband role questionnaire, the result of r product moment was 0.873, while the psychological adaptation questionnaire r product moment was 0.930.

3. Results

Univariate analysis

Husbands' role

Table 1

Respondents distribution based on the role of postpartum mother's husband in camar 1 arifin achmad riau province 2018.


Husbands' Role Frequency Percentage
Satisfactory 12 54,5 %
Unsatisfactory 10 45,5 %
Total 22 100 %

From table 1, which was obtained from 22 respondents, the most result was the role of satisfactory husbands' role which was 12 respondents (54.5%).

Psychological adaptation

Table 2

Respondents distribution based on psychological adaptation of postpartum mothers in camar 1 arifin achmad riau province 2018.


Psychological Adaptation Frequency Percentage
Adaptive 9 40,9 %
Maladaptive 13 59,1 %
Total 22 100 %

From table 2, the highest number of psychological adaptation of postpartum mothers' respondents was 22 maladaptive psychological adaptation which was 13 respondents (59.1%).

Bivariate analysis

Bivariate analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between independent variables (husband's role) and dependent variable (psychological adaptation) by using chi square statistical test. Bivariate results can be seen in the following table.

Table 3

Husband role relationship on psychological adaptation levels of postpartum mother in camar 1 arifin achmad hospital riau province.


Psychological Adaptation Husbands' Role Adaptive Maladaptive Total % P.Value OR
Satisfactory 8 66,7% 4 33,3 % 12 100 0,011 18.000
Unsatisfactory 1 10 % 9 90 % 10 100
Total 9 40,9 % 13 59,1 % 22 100

The analysis results of the role of the husbands' relationship on the level of psychological adaptation was, of the 12 respondents whose husbands' role is satisfactory, 8 respondents (66.7%) have an adaptive level of psychology, and of the 10 respondents whose husband's role is lacking, 9 respondents (90.0%) have a level of maladaptive psychology ones. The result of chi squared statistical test was p value = 0.011 and significant value was less than 5% (p value = 0.011 < 0.05) so Ho was rejected and Ha failed to be rejected, it can be concluded that there is a relationship between the role of husband and the level of psychological adaptation of post partum mothers. In post partum mothers in the Camar 1 Arifin Achmad Hospital Riau Province, the value of OR 18,000 it means that the respondents whose husbands have a good role were 18,000 times has adaptive psychology. Conversely, the husband who has psychological unsatisfactory role, potentially has his wife psychological maladaptive during post partum.

4. Discussion

The role or support of the husband is one of the factors that can trigger the risk of increased wife coping mechanic [4]. The results of the study of the relationship between husband's support and the tendency of depression of postpartum mothers was most of the mothers get satisfactory support from husband and tend not to experience postpartum depression by 56.1% and there were 14.6% of postpartum mothers who received moderate support and were prone to experience postpartum depression and 12.2% of postpartum mothers who received unsatisfactory support and tend to experience postpartum depression [7].

Psychological changes that often occur in post partum women are maternity blues, or postpartum blues which is a disorder of the feeling. Post partum depression is similar to other major and minor depression that can occur at any time and post partum psychosis is the most worrying and severe mental disorder during childbirth [9]. Post partum depression varies in severity and symptoms from one woman to another. It generally occurs two weeks after delivery until one year, with most depression occurring between the 6 th weeks until 6 th month. Common symptoms include feelings of helplessness, despair, fatigue, lack of energy, and loss of interest in anything [10].

The transition to parenthood can be a stressful time for parents, especially for mothers. A mother is not only faces a change in role, but also with a change in her body to return to a state like before becoming pregnant. Therefore, support from a spouse or immediate family is needed for a new mother [8].

According to the assumption of the researcher, the husband who plays a role in giving support to a post partum mother is important because the wife will be feeling closer to her husband and need more attention if the husband plays a satisfactory role. As long as the wife is going through the postpartum period, the wife will feel very happy because the husband gives attention to her and the wife will more adaptable to her new role.

5. Conclusion

The conclusion of this study is explained as follows.

  • The majority is respondents with satisfactory husband roles which is 12 respondents (54.5%).

  • The majority of respondents are in adaptive psychological which is 9 respondents (40.9%).

  • Based on Chi Square statistical test, the results obtained was p = 0.011 value significantly smaller than 5% (p = 0.011 < 0.05), so Ho was rejected and Ha failed to be rejected, it can be concluded that there is a relationship between the role of husband and the level of psychological adaptation of post partum mothers. The better the role of the husband is the better the level of adaptation of post partum mothers.

Funding

This research was supported by the Payung Negeri Pekanbaru Education Foundation, which provided research funding and community service to lecturers at STIKES Payung Negeri Pekanbaru.

Acknowledgement

Researcher would like to thank colleagues, especially Asta Suci for their contribution and support for this research, as well as Firlina Runing Martabati who have helped complete this paper.

Conflict of Interest

The researcher has no conflict of interest to declare.

References

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Cohen. (2010). Signs and Symptoms of Postpartum Mood Disorders. Accessed on 22 April 2016.

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Fatimah, S. (2009). Hubungan Dukungan Suami Dengan Kejadian Postpartum Blues Pada Ibu Primipara Di Ruang Bugenvile RSUD Tugurejo Semarang. Artikel Riset Keperawatan. Accessed on 10 February 2016. https://core.ac.uk.

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Haque.(2015). Prevalence and Risk Faktors of Postpartum Depression in Middle Eastern/Arab Women. Accessed on 20 April 2016.

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Leveno, K.J. (2009). Obstetri Williams: Panduan Ringkas. Jakarta: EGC.

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Pertiwi, T. (2014). Hubungan Dukungan Suami Dengan Kecendrungan Depresi Pada Ibu Postpartum. Denpasar.

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Reeder, S.J. (2011). Keperawatan Maternitas: Kesehatan Wanita, Bayi & Keluarga. Jakarta: EGC.

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Saleha, S. (2009). Asuhan Kebidanan pada Masa Nifas. Jakarta: Salemba Medika.

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Simkin, P. (2007). Panduan Lengkap: Kehamilan, Melahirkan & Bayi. Jakarta: Arcan.

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ISSN: 2413-0877