KnE Life Sciences | The 1st Payung Negeri International Health Conference | pages: 87–93

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1. Introduction

Bullying is a serious threat for the development of students because it is considered as the beginning of disturbance in children's behaviour. Bullying in elementary school children nowadays often happen and the prevalence is always increasing each year. The data from the Indonesian Child Protection Commission (KPAI) shows that bullying cases always increase from 2010 to 2014 from 2.413 casesto 3.339 cases(1). The result of the research done by Nurhamzah, Maureen, & Wiguna (2)showed that 89,5% children were involved in bullying behaviour in school(2).

Bullying action in school can happen in the classroom or outside the classroom. The research done by Dewi showed that 36,36% of bullying actions happen inside and outside the class. (3). Bullying has various types which are physical bullying, verbal bullying, and mental / psychological bullying. Physical bullying including hitting and kicking, verbal bullying including mocking and threatening, while mental bullying including isolating someone(4). Bullying can happen directly or indirectly.Bullying that happen directly can be verbal and physicall bullying, while bullying that happen indirectly can be mental bullying where someone spreads the issue about him/her on social media(5).

Bullying has negative impact for children's physical and mental health. Bullying can cause stress and depression to the children that are victims of bullying, it can even decrease their academic achievement in school (6). School that is place for children to study become a place that scary for children who are victims of bullying. Eisenberg (2009) states that 57% children that have experienced bullying in their childhood will depressed when they are adults, have low self esteem, and susceptible to siucide attempts. Children that are victims of bullying have three times greater risk of experiencing mental emotional disorder(7).

2. Research Method

The type of this research is quantitative research with descriptive design. The sample of this research were 400 school-age children that spread across 12 sub-district in Pekanbaru City. The sampling in this research used cluster samplingtechnique. The data collection tool used modified questionnaire from 3 questionnaires which are school bullying questionnaire (Sullivan, Cleary, & Sullivan, 2005, Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale (Mynard & Joseph, 2000), dan MyLife In School Checklist (Hamburger, M.E Basile & Vivolo, Am, 2011). The data collection was done in April – Agustus 2018.

3. Result

The result of the research can be seen as follows:

Table 1

The Distribution of Age in School-age Children in Pekanbaru State Elementary Schools.


Variable Mean SD Min - Max
Age 10,55 0,780 9- 14

The analysis result shows that the average age of respondents is 10,55 with the youngest age 9 years oldand the oldest age 14 years old.

Table 2

The Distribution of Gender, Classes, and Groups in School-age Children in Pekanbaru Elementary Schools.


Variable Kids Character f %
Gender
1. Male 165 41,3
2. Female 235 58,7
Grade
1. Grade 4 208 52
2. Grade 5 192 48
The Gang Ownership
1. Owning a Gang 116 29
2. Not Owning a Gang 284 71

The analysis result shows that gender of the most respondents are women, as many as 235 people or about 58,7% from the total respondents. The most class grade 4 which is 208 people or about 52% from the total respondents, and the highest number of groups is they don't have groups as many as 284 people or about 71% from the total respondents.

Table 3

The Distribution of Family Environmental Frequency in School-age Children in Pekanbaru State Elementary Schools.


Variable Family Environment f % f %
Parenting Patterns Violence Media (TV)
1. Parental Warmth 172 43 1. Yes 112 28
2. Parental Control 228 57 2. No 288 72
Fathers' Occupation Fighting
1. Formal 162 40,5 1. Yes 135 33,8
2. Non Formal 238 59,5 2. No 265 66,2
Mothers' Occupation Verbal Abuse
1. Employed 199 49,8 1. Yes 77 19,2
2. Unemployed 201 50,2 2. No 323 80,8

The analysis result shows that the most applied parenting style by parents is parental control as many as 228 people (57%), the father'soccupation are mostly informal as many as 238 (59.5%), the mother's occupation are mostly unemployed as many as 201 people (50.2%), the media of violence are not exposed as many as 288 people (72%), the most fights are never as many as 265 people (66.2%), and the most abuse is never heard abuse as many as 323 people (80.8%).

Table 4

The Distribution of Bullying Behaviour Frequency in School-age Children in Pekanbaru State Elementary Schools.


Variable f % Variable f %
Bullying Behavior Verbal Bullying
1. Yes 212 53 1. Yes 207 51.8
2. No 188 47 2. No 193 48,2
Physical Bullying Mental/Psychological Bullying
1. Yes 211 52,8 1. Yes 249 62,3
2. No 189 47,2 2. No 151 37,7

The analysis results shows that the most bullying behavior that happen was 212 people (53.3%) with physical bullying as many as 211 people (52.8%), verbal bullying as many as 207 people (51.8%), and mental / psychological bullying as many as 249 people (62.3%).

4. Discussion

The results shows that the average age of the respondent are 10.55 with a period of 9 years and age of 14 years old. The results of this study are in accordance with the results of research done by Nurhamzah and Dewi, which showed that the average age of school students involved in bullying was in the age of 9-14 years. This timeframe is the result of school education when wages are for school-age children 6-12 years (2,3). The kidnapping of school children is susceptible to intimidation(8).

The results of the study showed that the gender of most respondents are girl, as many as 235 (58.7%) from the total respondents. The result of this research is slightly different from the research done by Latifah where the result of the research showed that boys were more involved in bullying behavior, as many as 32 people (53%) (9). From the results of these studies it can be seen that actually there is no difference in bullying behavior based on gender. Girls and boys can be involved in bullying behavior. Boy students are associated with the incidence of physical bullying and girls are associated to verbal bullying (3)

The results showed that 71% of school children did not have groups and only 29% of school children had groups. The results of this research are equal with research done by Latifah which shows that only 20% of elementary school students have groups and 80% do not have groups (9). Children at the school age stage will start to interact and learn the values espoused by their friends so that they can easily adapt to their new environment. The children interaction with their friends can be a medium to learn avarious distinctive cultures during school, such as dominance and hostility. Schoolchildren begin to form strong bonds with their friends. Strong ties in groups can improve children's ability to socialize and achieve independence. Groups in schools are often associated with numbers of school violence, including bullying (10).

The results showed that the parenting style that mostly applied by parents of children is parental control as many as 228 people (57%). Parents with high parental control has various demands to the children and strictly monitored children's behavior. The purpose is that children can regulate their behavior. The application of discipline from parents is very useful to change children's behavior, teach children to be responsible and children are easier to cooperate with others.

The results showed that the occupation of fathers are mostlyinformal as many as 238 people (59.5%), the mothers' occupation are mostlyunemployed as many as 201 (50.2%). This is equal with the research done by Rahmadara which showed that 44.7% of fathers worked besides civil servants and company employees and 27.3% of fathers had jobs as entrepreneurs. 65.2% of respondents' mothers are housewives (11).

The analysis result showed that the bullying behavior that the most happen bullying as many as 212 people (53.3%) with physical bullying as many as 211 people (52.8%), verbal bullying as many as 207 people (51.8%), and mental / psychological bullying as many as 249 people (62,3%).

This research is equal with the research done by Hertinjung which shows that 47% of students have been involved in bullying and 48% have the vulnerability to be involved in bullying, only 5% of students have never been involved in bullying (12). Dewi's results showed that 34% of students involved in physical bullying, 89% involved in verbal bullying, and 42% involved in mental bullying (3).

Bullying includes several types, which are physical, verbal, and mental / psychosocial bullying. Physical bullying are hitting, pushing, punching, and carrying out physical violence. Verbal bullying are cursing, mocking friends and making fun of. Mental / psychological bullying are isolating friends and looking sarcastically at opponents (6).

Surelina said that the forms of bullying include direct bullying and indirect bullying. Direct bullying is bullying behavior such as verbal bullying and physical bullying, while indirect bullying is bullying that occurs indirectly such as mental / psychological bullying. Mental / psychological bullying can be seen when someone experiences violence, humiliated, and gets threats through internet media or various other media technologies through sms, e-mail, webpages or telling someone's personal secrets on social media (7)

The results showed that 52.8% of school children were involved in physical bullying. It can be seen from the results of the questionnaire analysis where 50.5% of respondents answered that they had hidden other children's property intentionally, 39.5% had ever tackle and blocked by other children until they fell, and 31.75% had been pinched his friend intentionally.

The results showed that 51.8% of school children were involved in verbal bullying and 62.3% were involved in mental / psychological bullying. It can be seen from the results of a questionnaire analysis that showed that 38.5% children were called by their friends with a call that they did not like, as many as 26% of children had been laughed at to shame. 34.75% children have seen and seen with a look of dislike more than once.

5. Conclusion

The conclusion of this research is that more than a half of school kids at State Elementary School in Pekanbaru experiencing bullying at schools. Bullying occurances are in the form of physical bullying, verbal bullying, and mental bullying.

Acknowledgement

The researcher would like to thank the Directorate of Research and Community Service General Directorate of Strengthening Research and Development The Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education that has funded this research. The researcher also would like to thank all State Elementary Schools in Pekanbaru City that have given the research permission and all stakeholders that have helped in the process of this research.

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