KnE Life Sciences | The 1st Payung Negeri International Health Conference | pages: 11–15


1. Introduction

Anxiety is a kind of feeling experienced by individuals without clear causes until these individuals feel uncomfortable in themselves [1]. This anxiety is frequently experienced by the patients who have physical disorder included the patients with cardiovascular disorder. On the patients with HF, this feeling of anxiety often emerges. The research results show that almost 55,5% HF patients experience anxiety [2]. HF patients feel uncomfortable with the heart disease that they suffer from, the economic condition that they must go through in the process of medica care, the willingness to keep doing their work, until the fear of death [3]. Anxiety on HF patients is also caused by the patients' fear towards what the patients feel towards their disease, let alone the condition of their severe heart disease.

The Results of Indonesia Basic Health Research in 2018 show that cardiovascular disease is at number 1.5% from total number of Indonesian citizens. This does not change with the results of Basic Health Research in 2013. This fixed number shows that there are some things that sill influence the occurance of HF disease in Indonesia. With this fixed number too, the anxiety symptoms faced when experiencing HF also differs. Therefore, the researcher wants to investigate how the factors like gender, education, and occupation of the patients with heart disease can affect the anxiety of HF patients at RSUD (Local Hospital) Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru.

2. The Research Method

The method of this research was correlational descriptive research by using cross sectional approach. This research was conducted from July until September 2018 at RSUD Arifin Achmad. The number of samples were 50 people, the sample selection was by using purposive sampling technique. The anxiety measurement was by using questionnaires DASS 21 and taking parts of anxiety comprising 7 questions with normal interpretation score 0-7, light anxiety with score 8-9, middle anxiety with score 10-14, and strong anxiety with score 15-19, and extremely strong anxiety with score above 20.

The measurement tool of environment variable was designed by the researcher and validity test and reliability test had been conducted to it beforehand. The data was processed by using frequency distribution and chi-square test to analye the correlation among the variables. This research had passed the ethic test at The Medical School of Riau University. All respondents were given information related to the purpose and design of the research being conducted. The respondents agreed to be the respondents in this research and signed the inform consent beforehand.

3. Research Results

The results of this research show that at Table 3, the majority of HF patients experience an extremely strong anxiety in the amount of 43 people (86%). While the lowest anxiety at middle anxiety in the amount of 3 people (6%).

Table 1

The Anxiety Level Before and After The Intervention on Each Group (N=50).


No Variable Total (n) Percentage(%)
1 Middle 3 6
2 Strong 4 8
3 Extremely Strong 43 86
Table 2

The Table of Anxiety Correlation with The Characteristics of HF Patients.


Variables Measurement Results Anxiety Total P value
Middle Strong <Extremely Strong
N % N % N % N %
Gender Male 1 3.6 2 7.1 25 89.3 28 100 0.683
Female 2 9.1 2 9.1 18 81.8 22 100
Education Elementary School 0 0 1 7.7 12 92.3 13 100 0.022
Junior High School 0 0 1 11.1 8 88.9 9 100
Senior High School 2 7.7 1 3.8 23 88.5 26 100
University 1 50 1 50 0 0 2 100
Occupation Entrepreneurs 0 0 1 11.1 8 88.9 9 100 0.031
Civil Servant 1 50 1 50 0 0 2 100
Housewife 1 6.3 1 6.3 14 87.5 16 100
Others (Farmer, Driver, Daily Labor) 1 4.3 1 4.3 21 91.3 23 100
Religon Islam 3 6.8 2 4.5 39 88.6 44 100 0.046
Christian 0 0 2 33.3 4 66.7 6 100

Table 2 shows that there are some correlation between repondents' characteristics and HF patients' anxiety. The research results show that there is no correlation between patients' gender and anxiety occurance (p value 0.683). While educational characteristics (p value 0.022), occupation (p value 0.031) and religion (p value 0.046) have correlation to anxiety experienced by HF patients.

4. Discussion

Anxiety is a normal symptom if someone is under pressure, and it will disappear if the pressure is gone. However, in patients with heart disease, pressure will always exist as long as the patients are diagnosed suffering from the heart disease. The research results show that anxiety on HF patients is strong anxiety. This is in line with the research which mentions that patients with heart disorder tend to experience worry and fear towards the prognosis of the heart disease [4]. Even beside that, patients with cardiovascular disorder also do not only experience anxiety, but also depression [5]. This is in accordance with this research which shows that patients wigh heart failure in majority experience an extremely strong anxiety.

Anxiety in this research is seen from various aspects, they are gender, education, occupation, and religion. The results of this research show that the average age of patients with heart disease is a productive age and the gender is male. The results of other research show that an individual with older age tend to experience anxiety [6]. However in the result of this research, it is found out that there is no correlation between gender and anxiety occurance. Whereas the research results show that male is the gender that tends to experience anxiety, because males tend to keep their problem from females [7].

Beside that, in this research also found out that there is correlation between the educational level of HF patients and the anxiety occurance. This is in line with the research which shows that the educational level of someone influences their way of thinking [8]. Beside that, someone with higher educational level will find out more information than someone with lower educational level, until the anxiety that emerges becomes higher than someone who does not know anything at all about the heart disease [8]. This can be seen from the results of this research that the majority of respondents graduate from Senior High School with anxiety level is extremely strong. Another characteristic that has correlation to anxiety is occupation. The result of this research shows that the majority of patients who experience an extremely strong anxiety is HF patients who work as a merchant, driver, daily labor, and unemployed patients (housewife). This indicates that the job that is only done by an individual with lover educational level. Next, the characteristic that influences the occurance of anxiety on HF patients is Islamic religion. However, the result of this research, according to the researcher, does not have a significant influence, because the majority of respondents who experience HF at the hospital are Islam, until certainly the majority of patients who experience anxiety is Islam. Until the writer concludes that religion in this research need to be analyzed deeper.

5. Conclusion

The results of this research show that HF patients experience an extremely strong anxiety. From the result of correlational test, it was obtained that gender at HF patients does not have correlation to the patients' anxiety, meanwhile occupation, education, and religion do not have correlation towards anxiety occurance on HF patients at Local Hospital Arifin Achmad Riau province.

Acknowledgement

The writer would like to thank The Ministry of Research and Higher Education because this research is The Beginner Lecturer Research Grant (PDP) which had funded this research in 2018.

References

1 

G.. Stuart, Psychiatric Nursing, 10th ed. Jakarta: EGC, 2013.

2 

K. Easton, P. Coventry, K. Lovell, L. A. Carter, and C. Deaton, “Prevalence and Measurement of Anxiety in Samples of Patients With Heart Failure: Meta-analysis,” J. Cardiovasc. Nurs., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 367–379, 2016.

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K. H. Smeltzer, S. C., Bare, B. G., Hinkle, J. L., & Cheever, Textbook of: medical surgical nursing, 12th ed. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010.

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National Heart Foundation of Australia, “Coronary heart disease, anxiety and depression,” 2014.

5 

L. T. Gustad, L. E. Laugsand, I. Janszky, H. Dalen, and O. Bjerkeset, “Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of heart failure: the HUNT Study,” Eur. J. Heart Fail., vol. 16, pp. 861–870, 2014.

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G. A. Brenes, B. W. J. H. Penninx, P. H. Judd, E. Rockwell, D. D. Sewell, and J. L. Wetherell, “Anxiety, depression and disability across the lifespan,” Aging Ment. Heal., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 158–163, 2008.

7 

K. Sadeghi, F. Mohammadi, and N. Sedaghatgoftar, “From EFL Classroom into the Mainstream: A Socio-Cultural Investigation of Speaking Anxiety among Female EFL Learners,” Int. J. Soc. Cult. Lang., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 117–132, 2013.

8 

J. Dyer, “Study data revile a connection between completed education levels and anxiety disorders.,” 2016.

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ISSN: 2413-0877