KnE Life Sciences | The 2nd International Conference on Hospital Administration (The 2nd ICHA) | pages: 274–285

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1. Introduction

Experiential marketing is a marketing process that creates a pleasant experience for the patient and the patient is expected to be drawn to come back and use the services of the hospital [1]–[3]. The focus of experiential marketing is on the customer and the ultimate goal of providing holistic experience for the patient [2]. Hospitals that conduct experiential marketing should provide unique, positive and memorable experience because it can maintain good relationships with patients, attract customers and ultimately make patients loyal [1], [4].

According to a research, experiential marketing is divided into two, namely strategic experiential marketing and experiential provider. Strategic experiential marketing consists of five dimensions: sense marketing, marketing feel, think marketing, act marketing and relate marketing [5]. Experiential providers consist of communications (advertising, public relations, annual reports, brochures), visual identity (product name, logo), product presence (product design, packaging), co-branding (licensed / patent, advertising on TV), spatial environment (corporate buildings, office interiors), web sites (corporate sites, product or service sites) and people (sales people) [6].

Based on the patient satisfaction survey on Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM) Hospital inpatients in July and August 2015, it was found that there were patients who complain about the cleanliness of the bathroom, the food menu or the patient's diet is less interesting, the communication between doctor and patient or family is less, patient registration is less spry and less friendly. The presence of such complaints indicates that the patient has had an unpleasant experience during hospitalization. Thus, a new strategy is needed, not only to improve the quality of care but also patient satisfaction.

Experiential marketing is a very important concept to learn because it has an important role that can affect the behaviour of patients and generate satisfaction and loyalty to the hospital [3]. Holbrook suggests that in providing experience to the customer (patient) not only prioritizes service features but also provides fantasies, fun and entertainment [7]. Experience is the sensation, feeling, cognition, and behavioural response generated by the brand or brand associated with stimuli [8]. This means that experience is when a person uses the services of a hospital then in him will arise a feeling that stimulates emotions, responses to stimuli, an activity arises to gain knowledge of the product or service. The purpose of this study is to reveal the perspective of patients about experiential marketing during undergoing inpatient treatment at Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM) hospital.

2. Methods

This is a qualitative research using phenomenology method and conducted on February-March 2016. In-depth interviews were conducted to 8 informants who were considered to represent the main class patients, 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade. The selected informants represented some characteristics such as gender, men and women, the frequency of care, the number of days treated, the mode of payment using health insurance provided by Social Security Agency (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial/BPJS) or out-of-pocket (general), willingness to be interviewed and able to share their experience smoothly. Data analysis is done by transcribing from the interview records and then reducing the data. Data reduction is done by arranging tables that contain emic and ethics. Emic consists of key phrases and coded keywords to make it easier for researchers to search again if there are fewer data. After that determined categories and themes that are ethical.

3. Results

This study found four of the five experiential marketing dimensions that are implemented in UMM Hospital, they are sense, feel, think and act marketing. In the sense of marketing, patients get pleasant experience about the ease of finding information and directions. The informant stated that the direction indicator in UMM hospital is very clear, for the examples, there is a description and list of rooms near the elevator and every room already has written label so it is easy to find and not confusing. Visitors do not need to ask to the reception desk because of this clear information and directions.

”That's definitely true, sis. Because in the elevator (the list of room) is also there. So we want to go the receptionist (but) as long as the information could be (found by our own selves), I and my wife often visit the sick neighbours or something. We do not have to ask the receptionist. We see in the elevator what's the name? The list (of rooms). (On the) first floor (there are room A, B, C, etc), this is second floor (there are rooms D, E, F, etc). Like that,”. (T104080216.05)

”(When I) go down the elevator alone it is easy to find the place (I want to go), I think it is not difficult, there must be (written information), (if I) want to (go) somewhere there is written information. The elevators are specifics, there is elevator for the patient, there is elevator for goods, there is elevator for visitors”. (Y103060216.12)

Dimension of feel marketing

  • Patients are happy because the officers provide services quickly when neededAll informants stated that they were happy about the services provided by the healthcare officials who give immediate respond when they are needed. Forms of speed of service include: if the informant ask for help and push the button to call the nurse then they will immediately come or if the nurse is still busy with other patients and could not come to the room when needed, the late arrival of officers to the room informants is always explained by them.“(If) I need something I will ring this bell. (The nurse will) come immediately”. (B102040216.03) “(It is) nice (and) responsive nurses, (when I) ask for help (the nurse will) swiftly appear, like (when I need help to) change the infusion (bag). (They will) reply after they are called (and) immediately come,”. (A108250216.04) “If we need (something we) push that button then the nurse will come soon. If (we have to wait) for a while it may (means that the nurse) still serve other (patient),”. (M106150216.07)

  • Patients are pleased with the ease and simplicity in the administrative process when they are dischargedMost informants said it was easy to administer discharge procedure when they returned home. All of administrative procedures are taken cared by nurses so that patients and families can prepare for other personal arrangements. Administration management for the patients who pay with national health insurance provided by Social Security Agency (BPJS) is the same as administration for the general patients who use out of pocket payment. There is no difference, it is easy and fast. Patient discharge administration at UMM Hospital is not too complicated so it is easier for people who do not understand about the procedure at first.“Everything is arranged by the nurse, (all) we need to do is just waiting (until the procedure) is done, then we go home.”. (S205280216.11) “Service (for) all (of people) who use BPJS and not use BPJS are the same. In other hospitals, if (the patient) uses BPJS (the discharge procedure) is usually complicated (and the patient or family must) take care of the letters (and other documents) for a long time (beforehand). Here (in the UMM Hospital) it is not like that. just like a general (patient who) pays (using out of pocket), (the service is) direct and fast,”. (S105120216.12)

  • Patients are happy with the hospital environment that is quiet and comfortableInformants revealed that the UMM Hospital environment is comfortable because the building is new, and quiet. Each inpatient room in the hospital contains only few people and there is glass barrier between patients to maintain privacy. UMM Hospital environment is also not dirty, clean, and fragrant. The first class rooms are as good as the hotel rooms. For the family member who would like to accompany the patient during the night, only up to two people allowed to stay in order to ensure that the other patient comfortable and peaceful. In addition, if there is visitor who makes a noise then the person will be reprimanded directly by the hospital staff.“Yes, maybe here is not so crowded yet, so it feels comfortable, not packed with sick people,”. (B102040216.08) “The term is if (I could) take enough rest (then it is) quite comfortable, quite quiet. But if (you ask how did I feel) yesterday, I could really rest,” (Y203130216.12)

  • Patients feel comfortable with cleanliness of the inpatient room and bathroomThe informant stated that the inpatient room and bathroom are clean. According to the informants, bathroom is hygienic because it is always cleaned by cleaning service officers twice a day in the morning and evening. Some informants stated that the bathroom in UMM Hospital is cleaner than the bathroom in their own house. The inpatient rooms are also hygienic because every day the room is cleaned twice a day as well. Cleaning services are also diligent in cleaning the inpatient room so it looks neat and spotless which makes informant feel comfortable.“Clean, comfortable, (and the room is) cleaned every day. The floor is cleaned twice a day,”. (M106150216.09) “Everything is clean, really nice. The cleaner is also diligent, (the floor is) swept first and then mopped. Well done,”. (I101040216.11)

Dimension of act marketing

  • Paramedic's attention to the patients by giving the medicine on time.The informant stated that the time of administration drug given by the paramedic is always on time. Drugs are administered according to the patient's schedule and needs (2 or 3 times a day). If there is a medication schedule at midnight, the paramedic will inform the patient in advance.” Always on time. (Even) at night, (I still get the) shot. If (I need the injection) at twelve o'clock (I get it on time). (If I need it) at one o'clock at night (then) I will get the shot”. (M206090316.05) ”Always on time. Even at one o'clock the nurse came here, informing “This (shot is) for the nausea, Sir,” ”. (B102040216.11)

Dimension of think marketing

  • Patient trust of the doctor and other health workers.An overview of the informant's experience of their confidence in the doctors and other health workers showed by the fact that the informant feels better after being treated in UMM Hospital. When a patient has not fully healed from the illness, the doctor will pay attention. The doctors who treated the informants are all specialists with trusted credibility. The expertise and skills of the hospital nurses are standardized. The services provided by the other health workers are also good. In addition, if the informant needs help or want to ask about their illness, all they have to do is just pressing the button to call the nurse. The nurse will give clear explanation if the patient wants to know about the illness or their current condition.“I fully believe (the doctors) because we are like this, first if there is mutual trust then everything will run smoothly, (it is) automatic. The second, we believe in the (given) service, it is clear that the service is good”. (M106150216.11) “Believe, strongly believe (in the doctors). In accordance with my condition I feel (that I) enjoy (the service), I fell (better as the time pass by,) hour by hour, (day) day by day, (it is) nice (to feel that) there is improvement”. (SP107210216.10)

  • Distrust of the doctorThere is only one informant who did not trust of the doctor during treatment. The sense of distrust is aroused due to minimum communication between the doctor and the patient. The patient did not get clear explanation at all so there was an uncertainty, resulting discomfort and the patient would like to get discharged from the hospital and go home as soon as possible. Unlike the other doctors who treated the patients while building good communication, the doctor who gives no explanation is not trusted by the patient.“If this (doctor, I) do not believe. Like that, (you) see it. If (on) the early days before we really trust (the doctors), they also build communication (with the patient). If (it is compared to) doctor E, the doctor always notify (the patient) directly. Just this one, (I) do not trust (the doctor) and then I want to go home”. (S105120216.11)

4. Discussion

This study describes four of five dimensions of experiential marketing obtained by the patients during hospitalization. Most patients get a pleasant experience during their hospitalization at UMM Hospital. This shows that the hospital has given good experiential marketing so that the patient is expected to come back to UMM hospital. The enjoyable experience gained includes the ease in finding information and directions, the health workers who provide services quickly when needed, the easiness of administrative process when returning home, the quiet and comfortable hospital environment, the cleanliness of the inpatient rooms and bathroom, the attention of the officer to the patient by giving the medicine on time and patient trust of the doctor. Only one informant have an unpleasant experience because of the distrust of the doctor.

The presence of clear directions and information in the hospital will make it easier for patients and visiting family members to find the room or place. This is in accordance with a research which stated that a hospital with clear room instructions or signs are quite good and clear in facilitating the public to find the rooms they want to go in hospital. When there is written information, instruction or direction and each room has the room number and the name of the room, that serves to navigate the patient, family or public in the hospital [9]. The presence of unclear directions in the hospital may lead to dissatisfaction for the patient [10]. Thus, quality health services should provide clear information about the rooms and direction [11].

Next, hospitals should provide swift service. The swift service here means that the responsiveness of the hospital employees to the patient. Responsiveness is related to the capacity and capability of hospital staffs to assist patients and respond to their requests and to inform service time is acceptable and provide services quickly [12]. This is in accordance with a research which stated that if patients feel the process of fast service, fast medical technical services, it will give positive result in patients satisfaction [13]. The quality, accuracy and speed of nursing care provided by the nurses will make the patient feel comfortable and satisfied [13], [14].

The ease of the administration will also give a good experience for the patients. A research stated that the administration service process must be perfect based on standardization and the level of efficiency and simplified so that patients who receive the services do not feel burdened but feel facilitated instead [15]. This is similar to a research which stated that in Kota Botang Hospital for ease of payment has been quite good because it has been in accordance with SOP (Standard Operating Procedures) and is not complicated [16]. Public service must pay attention to certain things so it may provide high quality service. For example, it should be easy to administer for those concerned, reasonable, equal, fair and transparent without any favouritism [17].

A comfortable and quiet environment will make patients feel happy and satisfied. The results of this study differ from a research by Dabri, et al which stated that 53% of respondents expressed dissatisfaction with class III hospital facilities. There are some things that make them dissatisfied with the environment of the hospital, among others related to the cleanliness of the room, the cleanliness of the toilet in the class III ward, the noise or commotion during the visiting hour and the less clean beds can reduce the sense of comfort. The research by Dabri, et al is different because it is only done in third grade only while the current research is done all classes except VVIP [18]. A pleasant environment will increase the satisfaction of a patient's experience [19].

In Islam, cleanliness is part of faith. UMM Hospital is an Islamic hospital in Malang. It is expected that environmental cleanliness, especially the room and bathroom, should be an important priority for the hospital. When the hospital pay attention about the cleanliness of the bathroom, such as the water is enough, there is stench and the floor is not slippery, then other hospital facilities will also be kept clean and tidy [20]. A clean and comfortable room will provide an added value for the hospital [21]. An unclean place is a source of discomfort for the patient and the source of the disease [22].

The timely administration of drugs in accordance with the schedule will make the patients feel that the health workers are truly concerned about the patients' needs and gives a good impression of the services provided by the hospital. A research stated that most of the support often given by nurses to patients, nurses always remind patients to eat and take medication, administering injection drugs regularly in accordance with the schedule [23].

The services provided by UMM Hospital have been good so that the patient strongly trust the care and treatment given by the hospital. All hospital personnel should show their concern to patients, ensure that patients feel safe during their stay in the hospital and do everything to gain the patient's confidence [24]. Service quality has an influence on patient confidence whereby the better the quality of hospital services, the patient's confidence will increase. Likewise the less good the quality of service then the confidence of patients will also decrease [24]. Trust is a key element to the success of a relationship and tends to be related to satisfaction [25].

Although most patients get that experiential marketing is fun but there are also patients who get an unpleasant experience and distrust the doctor. Most patients believe in the treating doctor even though there is only one (1) person does not. This distrust arises because doctor does not build good communication with the patient. A research states that the attitude of the health workers, hospitality, and communication will determine patients satisfaction [26]. Another research states that expertise, kindness and integrity are the factors that make up one's belief in others [27]. The distrust of patients based on their experience while being treated in the hospitals may aroused they feel disappointed discontent with the quality of the service[24]. The process of building patient trust in a quality of service will be determined based on the patient's experience in the hospital. Experience is the basis for the patient's sense of confidence in the hospital's service to meet their expectations [24].

5. Conclusion

The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that the experience gained by patients during hospitalization at UMM Hospital reflects that not all experiential marketing has been found and carried out properly. The experience gained by most informants is a pleasant and interesting experience. The experience regarding the doctor-patient trust is both pleasant and unpleasant. It is expected that in the future UMM Hospital can provide better experiential marketing in the future so that patients and families will return to use the health care from the hospital.

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