KnE Life Sciences | The Fifth International Luria Memorial Congress «Lurian Approach in International Psychological Science» | pages: 906–920

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1. Introduction

The category of responsibility is the basic ethical and philosophical entity; however, in the historical continuum it has a different nature of conception. We observe the transition from the responsibility as the basis of the "correct world view" (Aristotle, Heraclitus, studies by M. Foucault, A. Ado) required for self-knowledge, determination of one's own mode of behavior in the unclear and uncertain environment (pre-modernism). Further, to "professional responsibility" (modernism) where the focus of attention shifts towards the controlling imperative of compliance with the rules adopted in the collective, the assessment of the performance efficiency degree, its manageability and predictability (H. Jonas, А.S. Makarenko, К. Mitchum, К. Muzdybayev). Thus, the emergence of management as a science and its division into specializations makes one to be in the professional metrology forgetting that the human nature is much wider than the organizational framework, and, as A.R. Luria noted, "the labor is a product of conscious development," which was unofficially prohibited in the organizations of the Taylorism era. This prohibition resulted in the emergence of a number of negative professional deformations of employees: burnout syndrome, employees' tendency to avoid making decisions in difficult situations, procrastination, non-constructive strategies of coping with difficulties, etc. The accelerating and, at the same time, progressively complicated world, the unstable business environment, new forms and technologies of labor activity require for rethinking the role and position of the labor subjects and for returning again to the subjective human freedom, the possibility of moving beyond the limits of objective social norms (F. Nietzsche, S. Kierkegaard, М. Mamardashvili) with consideration for the diversity of the contexts of professional activity.

Addressing the integral practices [14] made it possible to consider the professional responsibility with due regard to three interrelated contexts: subjective ("I" as the professional responsibility subject), cultural ("We" as representatives-bearers of the professional responsibility culture), activity-related (observed manifestation of responsibility in professional activities). As a result, the responsibility may be viewed from a perspective of several quadrants. Let us dwell in more details on the theoretical analysis of the professional responsibility quadrants.

The subjective quadrant includes the perception and interpretation of the interior meaning of an individual regarding the professional responsibility, its individual experience and significance as the consciousness regulator. Following the scientists, who adhere to the evolutionary views on the development of a subject (L.I. Bozhovich, A.L. Zhuravlev, L.N. Leontiev, V.V. Petukhov, etc.), we consider the responsibility in the context of the evolution of a subject, which depends on the degree of voluntariness and autonomy of appropriating the necessary. A professional responsibility subject is understood as an employee, who is able to solve emerging contradictions in professional activity in an individual manner, applying self-regulation mechanisms, showing the proactive attitude in self-disclosure by means of transforming the environmental changes into the internal conditions (and vice versa), creating new ways of interacting with the reality and with oneself and forming the variability of behavior (K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, E.P. Korablina, D.A. Leontiev, S.T. Posokhova). Based on the conception of the evolutionary nature of human consciousness, it is obvious that there is a connection between the state of consciousness and the level of psychological development, intentions, will and measure of responsibility. Based on S. Cook-Greuter's ego model, we studied the professional responsibility at various stages. In particular, preconventional: irresponsibility or situational responsibility as external compliance in order to obtain protection/benefit by following the rules; conventional: responsibility is determined by affiliation with a group, responsibility is formed not only for oneself but also for inner circle, further, they consider themselves to be important and influencing members of the community or society, but separate from them and having their own choices; postconventional: the concept of responsibility ceases to be understood only as a socially accepted, the subject begins to independently explore the concept and verify for truth, correlate with the subject's own experience, high cultural patterns and, depending on the context of consideration, alienation from community-based and role patterns occurs over time, a high degree of self-determination is formed, a universal cultural style appears - in terms of V.V. Petukhov, "cultural subject” is forming.

The culture quadrant of the professional responsibility considers the collective values shared by a professional community or a group, the conceptions of an organization, its possibilities and limitations, the meaning of the activity, the understanding and description of what is happening in the organization - all those are different ways of describing the culture. N.I. Isaeva [6] views the concept of professional psychological culture from three points: 1) as a process of "cultural ascent and expansion of personality" (L.S. Vygotsky) by mastering oneself through the exponent and text of the profession culture, by overcoming the contradiction between the individual and the psychic and the professional 2) as a process of qualitative recombination of the systemic determinant 3) the process of changing equilibrium and non-equilibrium states of culture, whose complete dynamic cycle ("equilibrium - non-equilibrium - equilibrium") is comparable with the temporal continuum ("past-present-future") of the culture development. The culture of professional responsibility may be seen as a transition from the "first-order good" (the term of H. Jonas, 2004), which includes the adaptation and identification stages (as performing the prescribed task for the sake of its content and time duration, but not for the sake of self-significance of the matter), to the professional culture of the freely chosen responsibility ("second-order good"). Here, a choice occurs between the creative style of professional development (cultural transformer) or socially acceptable style (culture consumer). As a system of shared meanings and beliefs, the culture of professional responsibility changes in the process of the development of the organization and employee, and, of course, these processes are interrelated. So, the employee, being at different stages of occupational genesis, may be culture consumer or its active reformer (L.N. Aksenovskaya, D.N. Zavalishina). In addition, the culture of professional responsibility depends, to a large extent, on the measure of the world's presence and the tasks to be solved: focusing only on oneself (egocentric position or novice), expanding the field of responsibility in favor of colleagues, reference group (ethnocentric position or experienced specialist), and further to the whole world in general (world-centrism or mature specialist) (C. Gilligan).

The activity-related quadrant (external manifestation) of professional responsibility includes a system of objectively existing, observed and evaluated results of professional activity. As we pointed out previously, responsibility forms as the employee develops in the individual context from the object to the subject of responsibility, in the culture context (shared values), but manifests itself in the external world - in the performance results, quality, reliability, independence of activity. The nowadays management offers a wide range of methods of the manager's evaluation of and influence on the employees' activities and results. Conventionally, the employees' activity is evaluated from several points of view: based on the results achieved (result-based management), based on the performance of functions (activity evaluation), based on professional potential (personal and business qualities). In this context, the scientists have done a great deal to determine the types of responsibility and their role in solving business tasks of organizations. So, for example, L.I. Dementy [7] identified four types of responsibility based on the research results: optimal, executive, avoiding, situational. For the research subjects of the optimal-type, responsibility is a persistent property of the personality, self-sufficiency and thoroughness are characteristic in the performance of difficult tasks, they are able to clearly envisage their own future, set life goals. The executive type has insufficiently developed self-sufficiency when planning a critical activity; therefore they only perform the work assigned to them. The avoiding type is characterized by unformed motivation for the responsible behavior and the emotional unavailability for its independent implementation, although a level of the independent activity planning is sufficiently developed. Representatives of the situational-type responsibility are practically incapable of independently planning and carrying out any critical activity, they need constant external support, but are very willing to accept new responsibilities and make promises. According to the empirical results obtained by O.N. Shaldybina [11], it follows that a managers with a high level of responsibility associate the activity results with their own action, the unity of the past, present and future, and their opinion is less dependent on external information and have higher level of self-esteem. Т.А. Soltitskaya [12] links the categories of time and purpose with the ability for strategic thinking. As one and the same goal can be achieved in different manners and ways, it is worth considering the multivariance of the path or the awareness of the choices that exist in the present. Thus, there appears a temporal mode of responsibility from "here and now" to the realization of one's duty to choose and "answer" for the future, and past - to rethink the past. As a result, the external manifestation of professional responsibility is determined by different types of intensity, for example from situational to optimal responsibility and a temporal perspective of responsibility not only for the present, but for the past and future.

Thus, the results of professional responsibility researches are studied in each quadrant, and the development stages of professional responsibility are constructed. In this way, professional responsibility is a systemic, dynamically developing multilevel phenomenon that simultaneously manifests itself in three contexts: personal (from "responsibility object" to the active position of the "responsibility subject"), cultural (the transformation of the labor subject from egocentrism into ethnocentrism, then to world-centrism), activity-related (from responsibility in a short moment of time to responsibility for the past, present, future).

In this study, a hypothesis has been put forward that the professional responsibility and its types are conditioned by axiological and situational determinants. The purpose of this study is to analyze the specific features of the professional responsibility of the employees in a Russian construction company - highly skilled workers, engineers and technicians (sampling of 159 people, the average age is 36 years) - depending on the axiological and situational determinants. In accordance with the purpose and hypotheses, the following theoretical and empirical research tasks were formulated:

  • To define the types of professional responsibility, their axiological and situational determinants, their age specifics.

  • To compare the types of professional responsibility by professions, to disclose the conceptions of the professional activity of highly skilled workers and engineers and technicians.

2. Methods

The following was used as empirical methods: to determine the responsibility and intensity of its components, the standardized interview "Components of responsibility" was used [3]; to evaluate the axiological characteristics, there were used: a questionnaire of causality orientations [4], a technique of basic human conceptual attitudes (A.D. Ishkov, N.G. Miloradova, 2006), a questionnaire "Professional relevancy of an individual" [9]. To assess situational variables, the author's questionnaire "Subjective assessment of organizational reality in the past, present and future" was used (N.E. Vodopiyanova, O.O. Gofman). Among the factors, there were the following: employees' conceptions of organizational reality, occupationally difficult situations, incentives of professional activity, professional-personal resources in the past, present, future. The created questionnaire was passed the analysis for reliability and validity (Cronbach's alpha is 0.8, which is evidence of good one-time reliability), therefore it can be considered an adequate tool for measuring subjective conceptions of the organizational reality of labor subjects.

3. Result

Prior to proceeding to the description of the professional responsibility types and their determinants, we will briefly mention the research results, which are relevant to the employees' conceptions of professional responsibility. The respondents were requested to consistently assess the positive and negative factors associated with their subjective conceptions of organizational reality: fear of losing work, friendly or competitive relations in the collective, change in quality of work for better or worse, unreliability of salary payment, attitude to occupationally difficult situations as a natural part of life. Fear of losing work and the unreliability of payments were the most stress-producing in the respondents' assessments. Based on the correlation analysis, it was identified that the above factors are interrelated [13]. It was found that the stressfulness level in the organization under study was 62%. The integral indicator of the stressfulness level in the organizational reality is positively related to the age (p 0,05) and work experience in the company (p 0,05). Thus, the older the employee and the longer the work experience in the company, the higher the subjective "catastrophization" of the organizational environment in terms of its duration, intensity and consequences for the company survival as a whole, less confidence in the resources of the collective, which affects the manifestations of responsibility.

In accordance with the methodology proposed by L.I. Dementy, three components of professional responsibility were identified: cognitive, emotional and behavioral-productive (L.I. Dementy's methodology, 2005). The correlation analysis showed that the emotional component is associated with the age, professional experience (the older the worker becomes, the more rational his behavior becomes). Worrying about the quality of work and striving to overcome difficulties form the employee's involvement and influences the company's image in the future. There were identified positive correlations of the behavioral-productive component with the "I as professional” image: professional relevancy. The results of the research present the substantial relationship of this component with the professional relevancy and attitude towards oneself as significant professional in respect with other people, i.e., the employee forms the professional responsibility by independently overcoming difficulties and bringing the activity to results. The cognitive component has the positive correlational relationship with the integral indicator of the assessment of the professional and personal resources of the work collective in the present. Using the factor analysis, we found that the emotional and behavioral-productive components are interrelated. The cognitive component is independent, has the greatest "weight" and is caused by situational determinants only - by the conception of the professional and personal resources of the collective and by the assessment of the stressfulness of organizational reality [1].

Using the cluster analysis, we identified three types of professional responsibility in the main part of the study, and the determining criterion for their differentiation became the cognitive component indicator. Table 1 shows a ratio of the components by the types, and the diagram shows the percentage distribution of these professional responsibility types in the total sample.

Table 1

Distribution of professional responsibility components by three clusters.

Types of professional responsibility Value of components Distribution in total sample
Cognitive Behavioral-productive Emotional
Managerial High Medium Medium 27%
Executive Medium Low Low 29%
Impulsive Low High High 44%

Using statistically significant differences, in particular: fear of losing work (p 0,01), autonomous causality orientation (p 0,01), impersonal causality orientation (dependence on the environment) (p 0,05), dependence on achievements (p 0,05), responsibility for oneself (egocentrism) (p 0,05) and experience of professional relevancy (p 0,05), the following types of professional responsibility were identified.

The impulsive type of responsibility is characterized by the low-level experience of organizational change, manifested in a high dependence on the results achieved, the desire for autonomy in decision-making, has an average level of satisfaction with professional relevancy and the desire to explore oneself and one's capabilities ("sentient" soul by typology of B. Lievegoed). Representatives of the executive type intensely experience organizational changes, the fear of losing work is sufficiently high, they use the adaptation strategy without seeking from internal resources, they are oriented by externally specified requirements. The high level of experiencing the professional relevancy and responsibility for oneself reflects a "protective" model of behavior ("intellectual” soul). The managerial type differs from the previous types by an average degree of assessment of the organizational reality stressfulness; the professional relevancy is not of core importance. Possessing the subject autonomy, representatives of this type are able to take into account the situational variables. Using the terminology of B. Lievegoed, one can speak of the development of the "conscious soul", which is associated with the emergence of a mature personality.

It is established that the material remuneration plays a paramount role in all types. The greatest significance of this incentive is characteristic of the executive type (76%), there is a balance in the managerial type in terms of professional interest (16%) and the importance of the interaction in the collective (16%), Pearson's chi-square of 10,690, p = 0,030.

The results of the descriptive statistics show that the average age of the impulsive-type respondents is 33 years, the executive type is 37 years, the managerial-type begins forming from 38 years. Thus, the concept is confirmed regarding the gradual change from the emotional resources to the cognitive resources of professional activity. As it was observed by the researchers, emotions were a preform of thinking that performed simple and the most vital functions, which were sufficient for communication and solving everyday problems (the thinking that uses diagnoses and correct answers). Being emotional, a person keeps the links of his position with oneself only. The more the person is emotional, the less the person is able to compartmentalize the objective relations between things, but it is the easier for him to be aware of the subjective attitude to an object. The emotions perform an adaptive role in the collision of a person with uncertainty (R.M. Granovskaya). L.K. Gavrilina, V.M. Byzova mention that the maturity period of an individual is associated, on the one hand, with the withering of strength of body, on the other hand, with the flourish of the intellect and spirituality of the individual, which becomes a new source of energy. In their studies, it is confirmed that the formation of new intellectual abilities in an adult indicates the emergence of new cognitive motives, a new type of attitude towards the world, people, oneself. A.V. Remizova [10] empirically determined that the maximum awareness of responsibility at the cognitive level and its realization at the behavioral level are characteristic of women of 36-45 years and men of 46-60 years.

We studied a frequency of using words that characterize professional activity. It was found that, regardless of the affiliation with a professional group, professional responsibility is central to the conceptions of the specific psychological features of the activity. Professional responsibility comes to 86% in the conceptions of highly skilled workers and to 96% in those of engineers and technicians. It is interesting that, irrespective of the principal meaning of the "professional responsibility” stimulus word among the respondents, this concept is "articulated" in the types and has a completely different structure. This result confirms the differences in the identified types of responsibility at the cognitive level. Relying on the theoretical conceptions regarding the evolutionary nature of professional responsibility as a multilevel phenomenon, we assume that the types of professional responsibility, which we have identified, would be the levels of the professional consciousness development.

Let us consider the axiological and situational determinants that have influence on the formation of the professional responsibility types.

  • Impulsive type. The cognitive component of this type is caused by the impersonal causality orientation, by a low level of self-esteem and self-dependence, by the conceptions of the collective as friendly and team-oriented, its potential and positive attitude towards occupationally difficult situations in the future. The indicators of the external resourcefulness of the professional activity contribute to the emotional and behavioral-productive components (affiliation with the professional community, professional competence). The negative contribution is made by the conception of the collective potential in the past.

  • Executive type. The cognitive component of this type is determined by the axiological characteristic: the autonomous causality orientation; by the situational characteristics: conceptions regarding the stressfulness of organizational reality, the activity of the collective in the present. The emotional and behavioral-productive components are determined by the axiological characteristics, in particular, the external resourcefulness indicators of the professional relevancy (professional competence, experience of professional relevancy); by the situational characteristics: the conceptions regarding the professionalism of the collective and occupationally difficult situations in the future, with the negative contribution being made by the conceptions regarding the resources of efficient work in the past. The greatest contribution to the behavioral-productive component is made by the competition concept in the collective. Thus, the executive type is contributed by the conceptions regarding the organizational reality, the activity of the collective in the present, as well as the axiological characteristic: the autonomous causality orientation that determines the sensitivity to environmental changes and the control of one's own behavior.Thus, notwithstanding the different axiological and situational determinants of the impulsive and executive types, they have the similar "egocentric culture" of professional responsibility. To the emotional component of the types, the greatest negative contribution is made by the conception of the organizational reality in the past: the potential of the collective for the impulsive type and the conception of the efficient work resources for the executive type. The emotional attitude to the professional activity is determined by the external resourcefulness of the professional relevancy: the desire to belong to the professional community (impulsive type) and the negative experience of professional relevancy (executive type).

  • Managerial type. This type is significantly different from the previous ones.First, the cognitive component - awareness of professional responsibility - is associated with the situational variables only: fear of losing work and conceptions of poor work quality. The emotional attitude of an individual to the duties performed is also conditioned by the situational determinants: the presence of a continuous temporal locus (the past, present, future) in assessing the professional and personal resources of the collective, the conception of the low professionalism of the collective and the poor work quality. In this case, the situational assessment of "poor work quality" is not only the emotional attitude to the activity, but it is also included into the cognitive component, which, from our point of view, is related to the awareness of the current situation and the search for solutions. The realization of responsibility in the professional activity is manifested through negation of responsibility only for oneself, which we understand as a change in the egocentric position towards responsibility for other person (professional team, company) as well. We mentioned that a greater number of situational determinants in the managerial type of professional responsibility (MTPR) characterizes the ability for the strategic thinking, forecasting and probabilistic vision of the professional activity. К.А. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya considers responsibility as such involvement in an activity, in which, even with increasing difficulties, the subject does not change his attitude towards the activity. Emerging difficulties as a prospect of the possibility to solve them using own resources. In our opinion, this quote, characterizes the managerial type.

The executive type of professional responsibility is characteristic of engineers and technicians (51%). The statistical significance of the values is p 0,01. The employees are characterized by the external causality of professional activity and the orientation towards the development of external resources of professional activity, orientation to the future. The environment resources are subjectively evaluated as positive and understandable, which means that no reflexion resources are required to overcome occupationally difficult situations. The interaction resources are associated with a choice of a strategy of the emotional affiliation with the significant community. A tendency of employees to develop knowledge and skills with the purpose of reinforcing the external resourcefulness of professional activity, the high importance of the collective and the need for affiliation with it, the execution of professional activity at the high degree of involvement and the commitment to the common goal all determine the impulsive type of engineers and technicians. At the cognitive level, this type is determined by the impersonal orientation, which defines the unavailability (absence of necessity) for the independent description of the organizational reality and for the formation of subjective professional and personal views and behavioral patterns instead of borrowed, accepted in the professional community. Situational factors are only presented themselves as positive (friendly collective, qualitative result of labor), the contradictions in the activity and description of organizational reality do not seem obvious. We also should note that, in conditions of organizational and socio-economic transformations, engineers and technicians find it difficult to show creative activity, to be professionally independent as this requires that other resources should be activated.

In a group of highly skilled workers, a predisposition to the impulsive (36%) and executive (35%) type is reasonably significant (p 0.01). Irrespective of the minor predominance of the impulsive type that is characteristic of engineers and technicians, the executive type of professional responsibility is quite common among highly skilled workers. The formation of the executive type of highly skilled workers is conditioned by the cognitive assessment of the situational factors such as the subjective assessment of the stressfulness of organizational reality, the conception of the proactive attitude of the collective in the present, and the axiological characteristic - an autonomous causality orientation that manifests itself in a tendency to control one's own behavior, in sensitivity to changes in the environment. At the emotional-behavioral level, professional responsibility manifests itself in the desire of workers, on the one hand, to show the competence for the purpose of satisfying the need for professional recognition and relevancy; on the other hand, the experience of professional relevancy forms a competitive strategy of behavior. In addition, there were also identified other psychological differences in the professional groups [1]:

  • The highly skilled workers appreciate higher the professional competence, relevancy, authority, assessment of activity results, which is related to the external resourcefulness of the professional activity. The engineers and technicians have these indicators lower and the desire for self-determination and for internal proactive attitude is higher.

  • The highly skilled workers are oriented on the professional and personal resources of the collective of the past and the proactive attitude of the present, and the engineers and technicians oriented on the resources of the future only.

  • For the highly skilled workers, the unreliability of wage payment is the most stress-producing as opposed to the engineers and technicians, who look at the organizational reality more optimistically with their emotional component of responsibility being statistically higher.

  • The workers associate the reasons for occupationally difficult situations in the future with the difficulties of achieving the result, the engineers and technicians associate them with individual characteristics.

Similar conceptions have been identified in the professional groups. The importance of the "crisis" and "unemployment" stimulus words reflects the internal anxiety of the employees regarding the employment and the effect of the existing stressfulness in the company. Among the respondents, perception of occupationally difficult situations of the past (2008) is associated with lack of professional experience, insufficiency of knowledge (individual qualities), and the difficulties of 2015 are associated with poor labor management, low results and poor work quality of the collective ("resources of achievement" or activity result of the collective).

4. Conclusions

These results may give evidence of several specific features. In the first place, when assessing the organizational reality as stress-producing and complicated, the employees "disclaim" the responsibility for the labor result, and, in the second place, the employees need the psychological support that helps to form the creative initiative and vital capacity. Irrespective of the different time orientation, one may talk of a fragmentary image of the conceptions of the employees, who do not integrate the temporal loci and cannot open their own internal resources. In addition, the results of the research of highly skilled workers and engineers and technicians give evidence that there is a contradiction between the requirements of the environment (type of organizational structure, increased social and economic uncertainty both in the company and in the entire industry) and the existing types of professional responsibility of the employees, who most often belong to the impulsive or executive types. It is obvious that only the managerial type of professional responsibility is congruent to the changed conditions of the business environment. The results of this study allow us to better understand the multidimensionality of the problem of the professional responsibility and the determinants that stipulate them. In this case, additional researches are needed to more deeply explore this phenomenon, specifically in terms of the practical development of the managerial type in companies.

Thus, the scientific and practical interest in the comprehension of professional responsibility in the conditions of the Russian reality does not lose its relevance and is related to the solution of the key tasks of our society. In the first place, the employees' adaptation to the socio-economic and organizational transformations, to the fulfillment of their creative potential and subjective proactive attitude; in the second place, a search for new forms to overcome the crisis phases of the company development, the creation of an organizational environment that is oriented to the creation and co-development of its members; in the third place, the training and formation of a generation of responsible employees of business entities and government institutions (regardless of the official level).



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