SERVQUAL Gap Analysis for Service Development of State-owned Export–Import Training Services for Small- and Medium Enterprises in East Java, Indonesia


In the current era, international relations is essential to boost the country's economic growth. One of the activities that support it is the export–import (exim) trade activities. To conduct the activities successfully, the SMEs must understand the characteristics of targeted consumers and other matters related to technical implementation of international trade. This becomes an opportunity for the exim training services. There are two kinds of training services, namely, state-owned service and the private-owned ones. Participants have expectations for the trainings of providing the substantial materials. In addition, as service enterprises, participants can assess the quality of their services with SERVQUAL to analyze the gap between expectations and reality that they experience. For further enhancements, state-owned exim training services need to upgrade their competitiveness in order to be the main alternative for SMEs to participate in the exim trainings. By using gap analysis method, the service developments suggested in this would provide more focus on customers so that they can develop their capabilities during the trainings. This quantitative research was conducted by gathering primary data that were obtained by distributing questionnaires to 120 SMEs' CEOs and Exim Managers as participants of the exim trainings in East Java Province of Indonesia. The data were analyzed with SERVQUAL Gap Score. The score was simply acquired by calculating the customers' actual satisfaction deducted by customers' perceived expectation. This research used SERVQUAL dimensions to analyze the gaps that occurred within the indicators. It showed that two dimensions that did not need to be developed were the responsiveness and empathy. The gap in these dimensions was positive. Conversely, the remaining three dimensions that needed some service development were tangibles, reliability, and assurance. The results of this study would contribute to not only an exim training in Department of Trade and Commerce, but also management science, especially to the quality of other State-owned training services in other departments in Indonesia. Since the organization culture of state-owned and government-owned services is similar, this method could be used in wider areas of governance.

[1] Badan Pusat Statistik (Indonesia’s Statistical Center), 2016.

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