Dynamics of Cellular Factors of the Immune System of Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) on the Background of Mixtinvasion
The article presents data on the dynamics of cellular immune system factors of the arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) while being affected by mixtinvasion of protozoa (Isospora vulpina) and helminth (Toxascaris leonina). The changes in the blood cell composition, in particular those responsible for the body’s immunity and immune status, reflect the pathological effect of the endoparasites on the animal’s body. The development of the invasive process during mixtinvasions causes and is accompanied by a decrease in the level of nonspecific resistance of the host organism. In addition, a significant process of inhibition of the lysozyme complementary activity in the blood serum and the development of secondary immunodeficiencies is observed. The aim of our work was to study the development of the pathological process in arctic foxes, caused by previously detected mixtinvasion by eimeriidoses and helminthiases, as well as to identify dynamical patterns of the immune system cellular factors. Intravital diagnostics of parasitoses was carried out by means of coproscopic studies with the help of conventional flotation methods. 127 arctic foxes participated in the experiment. Among them individuals with double invasion, an invasion with both protozoa (placeI. vulpina) and helminth (T. leonina), were selected for the experiment. Healthy animals served as the control group. Arctic foxes which took part in the experiment were divided into three groups of 10 animals each. Groups were formed by the method of balanced analogous groups. Evaluation of the T-system of immunity was carried out by the method of spontaneous rosetting according to Jondal (1972). Isolation of lymphocytes by the method of A. Boyum (1968), B-lymphocytes were determined by the method of E. Mendes (1973), theophylline-resistant and theophylline-sensitive T-lymphocytes were determined using the method of S. Limatibul et.al. (1978). The immunoregulation index was calculated by the ratio of T-helpers to T-suppressors. During the experiment, it was found that in infected animals the total number of lymphocytes was significantly 10.2 % higher than in animals in the control group, however, there was a tendency to a sharp decrease in the total number of lymphocytes in patients with I. vulpina + T. leonina. The T-helper dynamics in infected foxes was 18.9 ± 0.9 (P≤0.05), which is 21.9 % less than in the control – 24.2 ± 0.6 (P≤0, 05). The dynamics of T-suppressors turned out to be directly opposite to the dynamics of the T-helpers. The dynamics of B-lymphocytes in the 2nd group turned out to be 1.76 times higher than in animals from the control. In the 3rd group same indicator was comparable with the control values of 2.9 ± 0.3, against 2.5 ± 0.4 in the control group. The study showed that mixtinvasion with placeI. vulpina + T. leonina leads to immunosuppression in the arctic foxes. Interestingly the specific therapy did not straighten the immune state of the animals, but on the contrary it became more pronounced, which suggests that antiparasitic drugs have an immunosuppressive nature on the body of arctic foxes as evidenced by violations of the parameters of the body’s natural resistance, the content of T-E-ROCK lymphocytes.
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